Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Insect-resistant pine heavily damaged by a leeper [looper].

Abstract

Biston regalis, a large looper 10 cm long, was identified as the cause of severe defoliation and death of Pinus wallichiana in the forests of Murree and Azad Kashmir in 1980. The pine had previously appeared resistant to various insect pests and it is suggested that this equilibrium has now been disturbed by large-scale agricultural and forestry spraying of various insecticides, which has upset the natural balance between pests, parasites and predators. Satisfactory control of B. regalis was achieved in the Murree area by mechanically collecting hibernating pupae and placing them in wire-gauze cages on the peripheries of defoliated patches so that on adult emergence only the small parasites and predators could escape back into the field. In the Azad Kashmir area the method was not applied properly in the first year [? 1981] but achieved almost complete control in the next year.