Commelinaceae - a review of the distribution, biology and control of the important weeds belonging to this family.
The family Commelinaceae is chiefly tropical with representatives in all the major continents. This review deals with 3 important weed species, viz., Commelina benghalensis, C. diffusa and Murdannia nudiflora. Synonyms for each species are listed. Results of weed control trials in cereals and broad-leaved and plantation crops are summarized. Herbicides are best applied pre-em. or early post-em. either singly or in sequences. Bentazone applied early post-em. either alone or in mixtures was most successful for the control of Commelina spp. Metribuzin applied pre-em. alone or in mixtures also gave satisfactory control in many parts of the world. Esters and amines of 2,4-D applied post-em. overall gave good control of C. benghalensis in the early growth stages while spot treatments were effective at later stages. Triazine and urea herbicides applied alone gave variable results but in mixtures were moderately effective. At later growth stages, Commelina spp. form dense mats of plant material so that removal by hand is often the only effective method of control.