The threat posed by alien weeds in Israel.
The alien weed flora of Israel comprises 40 species out of a total of 77 adventive species represented there. Twenty-nine of them occur in other countries of the Middle East and they probably reached Israel through these; the rest are regarded as direct imports from their countries of origin. About 9 species have already become major weeds, while the other 29 species, which are known as noxious weeds from other parts of the world, are in the active process of spreading and reaching this status. Details are given of the ecology, distribution, origin, first record or presence in Israel, agricultural importance and population dynamics for each species. From summary.