Hymenopterous egg-pupal and larval-pupal parasitoids of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha spp. (Dip.: Tephritidae) in Costa Rica.
Egg-pupal and larval-pupal parasites were reared from less than 10% of some 16 000 puparia of tephritid fruit-flies collected in Costa Rica between August 1979 and April 1980 from a wide variety of fruits, and in particular from coffee. Parasites reared from Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) comprised the 2 introduced braconids Biosteres longicaudatus Ashm. and B. oophilus (Fullaway) and the indigenous cynipids Ganaspis pelleranoi (Breth.) (carvalhoi Dettmer) and Odontosema anastrephae Borgm. The cynipids appear to be non-specific to the fruit-flies, and parasitism by the braconids reached only 2.6% for each species. At the time of collection, the puparia of Anastrepha spp. could not be identified to species, though 99% of those reared to the adult stage gave rise to A. striata Schin.; the other puparia gave rise to A. obliqua (Macq.) and A. serpentina (Wied.). All 4 parasites reared from C. capitata were also reared from Anastrepha spp. The other parasites reared from Anastrepha comprised Aceratoneuromyia indica (Silv.), Opius anastrephae Vier., O. bellus Gah., Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepl.), D. crawfordi (Vier.) and D. zeteki (Mues.). Adult parasites were reared from only 10.6% of the puparia of Anastrepha, and most parasite species were represented by 10 examples or less. The only more abundant parasites were D. zeteki, Aceratoneuromyia indica, B. longicaudatus and Odonotosema anastrephae. A. indica accounted for 50% of the total parasitised puparia of Anastrepha, and B. longicaudatus accounted for 20.3%. Opius anastrephae, Aceratoneuromyia indica and D. zeteki were reared primarily from puparia of Anastrepha collected on guava. A single example of D. toxotrypanae (Mues.) was reared from 1 of 214 puparia of Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerst.