Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Animals and seeds of Pinus cembra L. in the Passo di Lavaze (Dolomites).

Abstract

In 1971-73, the relations between various animals and the seeds of Pinus cembra were investigated in forests near Passo di Lavaze in the Province of Trento, Italy, where the seeds ripen during the autumn but do not fall spontaneously until the following spring. Among the insects damaging the cones or seeds, on which notes are given, were Cecidomyia pini (Deg.), which is recorded for the first time in Italy and of which the larvae feed in the bark, in the cones and in cortical tumours, both directly damaging the seeds and hindering seed formation; it formed cocoons on the needles in early October and adults emerged in the following May. Larvae of Eupithecia abietaria (Goeze) (pini (Retz.)) mined the cone scales and rachis without harming the seeds. In 1972, unusually large numbers of Xyela alpigena (Strobl) and X. julii (Breb.) were observed in an area containing old trees of P. cembra and P. sylvestris; they appeared to be feeding on pollen, but this was produced in such quantities that no economic damage was caused. Other insects mentioned briefly from the literature as pests of P. cembra in the same general region, although not noticeably affecting seed production, are Puto antennata (Sign.), which causes yellowing and premature fall of needles, largely owing to the production of honeydew and sooty mould; the secondary bark-beetle pests Pissodes pini (L.) and Ips amitinus (Eichh.); and Zeiraphera diniana (Gn.), which, although a serious pest of Pinus cembra and Larix decidua elsewhere, occurs only occasionally in the Dolomites.