Abundance and parasitic habits of some parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).
Adult emergence curves for Rhyacionia frustrana (Comst.) and 27 species comprising its parasite complex were compared for 4 generations on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in Georgia, USA, in 1974-75. Based on the numbers of adults emerging, parasitism of the 3 generations in 1975 was 42%. Lixophaga mediocris Aldr. comprised 45% and Campoplex frustranae Cushm. 23% of all the parasites reared. Emergence curves for R. frustrana and parasites showed considerable overlap, indicating that it is unlikely that foliar applications of broad-spectrum insecticides for the control of R. frustrana could be timed to avoid heavy parasite mortality. Eleven species of parasites were reared directly from host larvae or pupae. Examination of host remains showed that some parasites could be either primary or secondary. The habits of Haltichella rhyacioniae Gah. and Spilochalcis flavopicta (Cress.) were found to be more diverse than previously reported and included internal secondary and primary parasitism, respectively.