Animals and cones of red spruce in some woods of the eastern Alps.
As a result of a survey in 1971-73 of the animals affecting the production of cones (and consequent regeneration) in pure or mixed stands of spruce (Picea abies) in the eastern Alps in Italy, and also of the literature, information is given on the habits of these pests and the damage caused by them. Of the insects identified with certainty, the Tortricid Cydia (Pseudotomoides) strobilella (L.), the Cecidomyiid Kaltenbachiola strobi (Winn.) (which is new to Italy) and the Anobiid Ernobius abietis (F.) were exclusive to spruce cones, and the first two species entered diapause when cones were not available; the Pyralid Dioryctria abietella (Schiff.) and the Geometrid Eupithecia abietaria (Goeze) (pini (Retz.)) were able to feed on other parts of the tree or on other plants altogether in the absence of cones; and the Lygaeids Gastrodes abietum Bergr. and G. grossipes (Deg.) did not feed on the cones but overwintered between the scales. The most obvious damage to cones was caused not by insects but by squirrels and crossbills.