Pests of grape vines in Azerbaidzhan.
Over the past 15 years, 94 species of insects (representing 7 orders) and 4 species of mites have been found attacking grape vines in Azerbaidzhan, where vine-growing is an important industry. Notes are given on the local distribution, biology and control of the chief pests, which are Viteus vitifoliae (Fitch), Polyphylla olivieri (Lap.), Planococcus citri (Risso), Lobesia (Polychrosis) botrana (Schiff.), Eotetranychus (Schizotetranychus) pruni (Oudm.) and Eriophyes vitis (Pgst.), and also of Isophya schneideri Brunn. (adelungii Shchelkanovtsev), Oecanthus pellucens (Scop.), Thisoicetrinus pterostichus (F. de W.), Parthenolecanium corni (Bch.), Schistoceros bimaculatus (Ol.), Byctiscus betulae (L.), Sparganothis pilleriana (Schiff.), Hyles lineata subsp. livornica (Esp.) (Celerio livornica) and Xestia (Agrotis) c-nigrum (L.), which are next in importance. Other species causing damage are noted. V. vitifoliae overwinters mainly as first- and second-instar nymphs in the soil, less frequently in the egg stage. Hexachlorobutadiene has been found to be the most effective soil fumigant against the pest. Polyphylla olivieri overwinters in the larval stage. Satisfactory control of the larvae is obtained by dusting the soil with BHC dust before planting. L. botrana has 3 generations a year and overwinters in the pupal stage. Carbaryl (Sevin) and trichlorphon (chlorofos) give good control of the larvae. Planococcus citri overwinters in the nymphal or adult stage and has 4 generations a year. Phosalone, phosphamidon, trichlormetafos-3 [O-ethyl O-methyl O-2,4,5-trichlorophenyl phosphoropthioate] or malathion (carbofos) are used in its control, particularly against the second generation. Eotetranychus pruni overwinters as fertilised females under the bark and in cracks. Dimethoate (Rogor) and dicofol (Kelthane) are highly toxic to the mobile forms. Eriophyes vitis overwinters in the adult stage, mainly under the bud scales, and can be controlled with dicofol.