Taxonomy of Abies in the Southern Appalachians: variation in Balsam monoterpenes and wood properties.
Gas/liquid chromatographic analyses were made of terpenes from bark blisters of Abies in 18 Southern Appalachian stands. A clinal variation pattern was indicated for monoterpenes in Abies balsamea, 'intermediate Fir' (A. balsamea var. phanerolepis) and A. fraseri. A similar variation pattern was found for wood extractives, but no pattern was evident for sp.gr. or for tracheid length. From this and previous studies [see FA 31, 2079] the authors propose that only one species need be recognized in the eastern USA, i.e. A. balsamea, with the three varieties A. balsamea vars. balsamea, phanerolepis and fraseri.