The horntails of Siberia.
This monograph on the horntails (Xiphydriidae and Siricidae) of Siberia is based on the author's investigations in 1956-64, various collections in the Soviet Union and the literature. The species composition, habitats, geographical distribution and injuriousness of horntails in the forests of Siberia are discussed, a key to 28 species occurring there is presented, and individuals species are described, with details of their distribution and biology. There is an ecological-faunistic review, in which all the development stages are considered, a section on distribution in relation to landscape and biotope, one on population dynamics and one on the injurious activities of horntails and measures for their control. Populations were reduced by insect parasites and predators insects and birds. Among the Ichneumonids parasitising horntails were Mesoleptus typhae (Geoffr.), Aulacus striatus (Jurine), Rhyssa persuasoria (L.), R. superba (Schr.), Rhyssa sp., Xylonomus sp. and Pyracmon sp. The larvae of Xylophagus (Erinna) cinctus (Deg.) were predacious on Urocerus gigas taiganus Benson and Sirex ermak (Sem.), as well as on the Lamiid Monochamus urussovii (Fisch.) and the Cerambycid Rhagium inquisitor (L.).