The parasite complex of the Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata L.) (Lep., Geometridae) with particular reference to pupal parasites Part I.
The geographical distribution and bionomics of Operophtera brumata (L.) are discussed, and an extended account is given of the biology of most of the species of its parasite complex. The egg-parasites include Trichogramma evanescens Westw. (Trichogrammatidae) and Telenomus nitidulus Thoms. (Scelionidae), the larval parasites include the Tachinids Cyzenis albicans (Fall.), Lypha dubia (Fall.), Phorocera obscura (Fall.), Zenillia (Phryxe) nemea (Mg.), Z. (P.) longicauda (Wainwright) and Smidtia conspersa (Mg.), the Braconids Apanteles jucundus Marshall, Rogas testaceus (Spin.) and an unidentified species of Meteorus, the Eulophid Eulophus larvarum (L.), and the Ichneumonids Phobocampe crassiuscula (Grav.), Agrypon flaveolatum (Grav.), Parabates (Netelia) latungula (Thoms.) and Campoplex (Sinophorus) rufifemur (Thoms.). The prepupal stage of the host after spinning its cocoon is attacked by four species of Aptesis (Ichneumonidae), of which A. abdominator (Grav.) is dealt with in most detail, and the pupal stage is attacked by two further Ichneumonids, Pimpla contemplator (O.F. Mull.) and Cratichneumon culex (O.F. Mull.). The hyperparasites discussed include the Ichneumonids Phygadeuon elegans (Forst.), Gelis sp., G. areator (Panz.), Itoplectis maculator (F.), Mesochorus sp., Hemiteles castaneus Tasch., and Theroscopus hemipterus (F.) and the Perilampid Perilampus ruficornis (F.).