Contributions to Forest Entomology, 14-38.
AbstractNo. 14 (pp. 223-226, 362-365) of this series of papers on German forest insects [cf. R.A.E., A 14 382] describes the urticating hairs in the third and subsequent larval instars of Thaumetopoea processionea, L., T. pinivora, Treit., and T. pityocampa, Schiff. No. 17 (370-373) describes the fertilization and oviposition of T. processionea. All the eggs, which totalled only from 57 to 132 per female, were laid on an oak twig in one batch. The average life of a female was 10.5 days. No. 18 (373-374) records the number of eggs (85-255 and 95-251 respectively) laid on pine by T. pinivora and T. pityocampa, which also oviposit once only. No. 26 (402-404) describes the methods of feeding on pine needles of the five larval instars of T. pinivora; they were similar to those of Diprion (Lophyrus).
No. 16 (369) gives a list of Ichneumonids bred from the pine sawfly, D. (L.) pini, L., including Spilocryptus nubeculatus, Grav., S. tibialis, Thorns., Gelis (Pezomachus) cursitans, F., G. (P.) coelebs, Ratz., G. (P.) pedicularius, F., Microcryptus subguttatus, Grav., M. basizonus, Grav., M. sericans, Grav., Leptocryptus strigosus, Thoms., Hemiteles castaneus, Tasch., Pimpla alternans, Grav., Holocremnus cothurnatus, Hlmgr., H. clandestinus, Hlmgr., H. heterogaster, Thoms., H. ratzeburgi, Tschek, Mesochorus fulgurans, Hal., Lamachus marginatus, Brischke, L. lophyrorum, Htg., L. frutetorum, Htg., L. intermedius, Ratz., Zemiophorus scutulatus, Htg., Hypsantyx impressus, Grav., Exenterus marginatorius, F., E. oriolus, Htg., Microplectron fuscipenne, Zett., Meteorus albiditarsis, Curt., Eupelmus vesicularis, Retz. (degeeri, Dalm.), Monodontomerus dentipes, Boh., and M. obsoletus, F. In no. 21 (377-379), are recorded observations of larvae of D. pini (as many as 80 per cent. in some batches) that became free from parasitism by Tachinids after moulting, the eggs or young maggots being found on the cast skins. Similar observations were subsequently made with the nun moth [Lymantria monacha, L.] and Malacosoma neustria, L. No. 22 (385-387) and no. 31 (500-502) describe the oviposition of Microcryptus (Phygadeuon) basizonus f. pteronorum, Htg., and Exentems marginatorius, respectively, in the larvae of D. pini inside their cocoons. No. 27 (404-406) records parasitism of the eggs of this sawfly by a Scelionid, Teleas sp., 1, 238 out of 2, 459 being attacked in one instance, while in others the maximum was 80 per cent.
No. 28 (406-411) is a key to the larvae of the German species of Diprion (Lophyrus). No. 19 (375-376), no. 34 (507-508) and no 38 (524-525) describe, respectively, the various larval instars of D. (L.) Pallidus, Klug, D. (L.) socius, Klug, and D, (L.) sertifer, Geoff. (rufus, Retz.), all of which feed on pine. No. 30 (497-500) describes the method of oviposition of the species of Diprion of which the larvae feed singly. They comprise D. (L.) polytomus, Htg. (hercyniae, Htg.) and D. (L.) abieticola, D. T., on spruce, and D. (L.) nemoralis, Enslin (nemorum, F.), D. (L.) virens, Klug, D. (L.) laricis, Jur., D. (L.) frutetorum, F., and D. (L.) variegatus, Htg. (thomsoni, Konow) on pine.
No. 15 (365-369) and no. 25 (400-402) deal respectively with egg-production in the willow-borer, Cossus cossus, L., and in the poplar clearwing, Trochilium apiforme, Clerck, the females laying 905-1, 492 and 955-1, 190 eggs. No. 29 (411-423) describes in detail reproduction in Sphinx (Hyloicus) pinastri, L., infesting pine and spruce. Pairing and oviposition occurred by night. From 379 to 668 eggs were found in the ovaries, and apparently almost all were deposited. Parthenogenetic eggs were sterile. The eggs and female genitalia are described. No. 37 (519-524) describes pairing, oviposition and the female genitalia of Smerinthus populi, L., and S. ocellatus, L. ; dissected ovaries contained 514-547 and 855-961 eggs, respectively.
No. 20 (375-376) deals with the attraction of the males of Notolophus (Orgyia) antiquus, L., by the females; pairing occurred as soon as the latter emerged. No. 23 (387-399) records that females of Lymantria monacha laid 220-451 eggs, by night only. Unfertilised females, which sometimes oviposited by day, laid from 42 to 299 eggs, all sterile. The life of a fertilized female was 9-12 days, and of an unfertilized one about 15. The reproductive organs of the female are described. Oviposition began on the third day after emergence, so that destruction of the females [cf. 19 702] should begin as soon as the first is seen.
No. 24 (399-400) gives the following list of Ichneumonids found attacking the Tachinid, Ernestia (Panzeria) rudis, Fall., an important parasite of the pine Noctuid [Panolis flammea, Schiff.]: Microcryptus arrogans, Grav., M. brachypterus, Grav., Phygadeuon vagans, Grav., P. variabilis, Grav., P. subtilis, Grav. (flavicans, Thoms.), P. vexator, Thnb., Hemiteles castaneus, H. pedestris, F., Homotropus pectoratorius, Grav., and Astiphromma scutellatum, Grav. No. 33 (507) records the following hyperparasites bred from Banchus femoralis, Thoms., from cocoons of Panolis flammea: Cryptus dianae var. gracilicornis, Grav., Microcryptus rufipes, Grav., M. basizonus, Hemiteles castaneus, and Meteorus albiditarsis.
In no. 32 (502-506), oviposition by Malacosoma neustria, M, castrensis, L., and the birch Lasiocampid, Eriogaster lanestris, L., is described; all three oviposit once only. Dissected ovaries contained respectively 75-329, 458-661 and 320-355 eggs per female. No. 35 (508-512) deals with oviposition by the oak Lasiocampid, Lasiocampa quercus, L. Females laid from 47 to '289 eggs; those laid by unfertilized females were not viable. The female genitalia are described.
In no. 36 (513-518), an account is given of oviposition by Sirex augur, Klug, and S. (Paururus) noctilio, F., both infesting silver fir [Abies]. The average numbers of eggs in the ovaries were 1, 000-1, 100 and less than half that number respectively. The eggs of both species are described.