Mango Culture in Hawaii.
The most serious insect pests of the mango tree in Hawaii are Ceratitis capitata, Wied. (Mediterranean fruit-fly) and Cryptorrhynchus mangiferae, F. (mango weevil). The former became established about 1907 and attacks many kinds of fruit. On mango, the eggs hatch in 2-6 days, and the larvae feed on the maturing fruit, causing it to fall in a decaying condition. They enter the soil for pupation, which lasts about 10 days in warm weather or as long as 50 in cold. The varieties of mango are discussed with reference to their resistance to the fly. Cryptorrhynchus mangiferae was first observed in Hawaii about 1905. The adults generally appear about 15th May, and the female oviposits in slight incisions on the surface of the fruit before it is half grown, the larvae burrowing into the kernel. One to four larvae may occur in one fruit, but their presence is not evident, though the fruit eventually decays from the seed outwards, and frequently drops to the ground. In late June or early July they become mature and pupate within the seed. The life-cycle is thought to occupy about 40 days, the rest of the year being spent in hibernation, in the ground or among stones, old leaves or other litter. Adults remained alive when kept without food or fresh air in a small cork-stoppered bottle for 140 days. Litter and fallen fruit should be collected and burnt as they harbour numbers of adult weevils. It is suggested that parasitic enemies should be found and introduced into Hawaii.