The Parasites of the Pine Tip Moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock).
Studies were made in 1924 and 1925 of the parasites of Rhyacionia frustrana, Comst., in Virginia, where it attacks Pinus virginiana, with a view to introducing them into Nebraska to control R. frustrana bushnelli, Busck, which has recently caused, serious damage to western yellow pine [Pinus ponderosa] in that State. Twenty-one species of parasitic Hymenoptera and two Tachinids were bred during these studies; notes on these and on several other species bred from R. frustrana in Louisiana and Massachusetts and a key for their determination are given. Goniozus longiceps, Kieff., Epiurus indagator, Cress., Calliephialtes comstocki, Cress.,. Microbracon mellitor, Say, M. gemmaecola, Cush., M. gelechiae, Ashm., Eurytoma tylodermatis, .Ashm., Secodella subopaca, Gah., Hyssopus thymus, Gir., H. rhyacioniae, Gah., Elacherlus pini, Gah., and Habrocytus thyridopterigis, How., are external parasites of the larva. Campoplex frustranae, Cush., Cremasius epagoges, Cush., Glypia varipes, Cress., Phanerotoma rhyacioniae, Cush., Apanteles sp., and the Tachinids Lixophaga mediocris, Aldr., and L. plumbea, Aldr., are internal parasites of the larva; Pimpla (Itoplectis) conquisitor, Say, and Haltichella rhyacioniae, Gah., are parasites of the pupa. Spilochalcis sp. and S. delira, Cress., are hyperparasites, attacking pupal parasites. Several other parasites are included, but then status is unknown, and they are probably not primary parasites of R. frustrana.