Pests of Economic Plants in Samoa and other Island Groups.
AbstractThis list of the pests of economic plants of the Samoa, Tonga and Ellice Islands is compiled from observations made by the author and Dr. P. A. Buxton during 1924 and 1925, and the records of other writers. Many of these have already been noticed [R.A.E., A, ii, 555; iv, 128; xii, 272].
Except where otherwise stated the records are from Samoa, and they include: The Phasmid, Graeffea cocophaga, Newp., which is a serious pest of coconuts in Samoa and is also common in Fiji, Tonga and other groups of islands in the Pacific; the Pentatomid, Tectocoris lineola var. tongae, Boisd., which was not found in Samoa, but was observed in Tonga, where all stages attacked cotton bolls; the Coreids, Leptocorisa varicornis[Leptocorisa acuta], F, , which occurred on egg-plant [Solanum melongena] though it is not known as a pest, and Leptoglossus australis, F., on cucumber; the Pyrrhocorids, Dysdercus sidae, Montr., on Hibiscus spp. and kapok (Eriodendron sp.) in Samoa and on cotton in Tonga, and D. impictiventris, Stal, on H. tiliaceus in Samoa; the Delphacids, Megamelus proserpina, Kirk., which was very common on taro (Colocasia esculenta) in Samoa and has been recorded from 'Fiji, Java and the Philippines, and Peregrinus maidis, Ashm. ; the Aleurodid, Neomaskellia bergi, Sign., which is an important pest of sugar-cane in Fiji, and is occasionally abundant in Samoa; the Coccids, Asterolecanium bambusae, Boisd., on bamboo in the New Hebrides, Pseudococcus citri[Planococcus citri], Risso, on a variety of food-plants including lemons and cashew [Anacardium occidentale], also recorded from cotton in the New Hebrides, P. cocotis, Mask., on seedling coconut stems under mud galleries made by ants, Ceroplastes rubens, Mask., on cinnamon, fern and other plants, also recorded from Melaleuca sp. in New Caledonia, Pulvinaria psidii, Mask., on lemon leaves in the New Hebrides, Eucalymnatus tessellatus var. perforatus, Newst., on cinnamon and Morinda citrifolia, Coccus acuminatus, Sign., on pineapple in Samoa and on fern in the New Hebrides, Coccus hesperidum, L., on leaves of Carica papaya, Saissetia coffeae, Wlk., on Morinda citrifolia and lemon, S. nigra, Nietn., on several plants including Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Samoa, on Swain's Island and in the New Hebrides, and Pinnaspis minor, Mask., on coconut leaves in the Ellice Islands and on banana on Swain's island; the Aphid, Toxoptera aurantii, Boyer, on leaves of cacao and of Hibiscus tiliaceus; the termites, Microcerotermes peraffinis, Silv., on coconut, mango and other trees, Prorhinotermes inopinatus, Silv., eating paper stored in a damp cupboard, Calotermes rainbowi, Hill, on coconuts in the Ellice Islands, and C. (Cryptotermes) buxtoni, Hill, destroying woodwork; the Coccinellid, Epilachna vigintioctopunctata, F., a serious pest of cucumber, also found on egg-plant; the Clerid, Necrobia rufipes, DeG., in stored food and dried fruit in Samoa, Tonga and Fiji; the Dynastid, Oryctes rhinoceros, L., the control measures for which are briefly discussed; the Cerambycid, Haplohammus? coenosus, Kirby, on Poinsettia; the Galerucid, Aulacophora similis, Oliv., eating the flowers of cucurbits (this being probably the species doubtfully recorded by Swezey as A. fabricii, Baly [xii, 272]); the Cassidid, Metriona strigula, Montr., on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas); the Scolytid, Dacryphalus (Cryphalus) mangiferae, Stebb., bred from mango; the Noctuids, Prodenia litura, F., on the leaves of taro and in tomato fruit, Othreis fullonica, L., on Erythrina (the larvae of this moth being attacked on several occasions by Forcipomyia sp.), Heliothis assulta[Helicoverpa assulta], Guen., recorded as a tobacco pest, and Phytometra chalcites[Chrysodeixis chalcites], Esp., eating leaves of cucumber and tomato; the Sphingid, Hippotion celerio, L., previously recorded from taro, also attacking Alocasia macrorrhiza and other Aroids; the Pyralids, Corcyra cephalonica, Staint., in stored rice, Lamprosema diemenalis, Guen., eating the leaves of beans (an undetermined Chalctd being bred from the pupae), Sylepta derogata, F., found curling the leaves of Hibiscus tiliaceus, and Maruca testulalis[Maruca vitrata], Geyer, eating the interior of bean pods; the Tortricids, Crocidosema plebeiana, Zell., on Hibiscus and other Malvaceous plants in Samoa, Tonga and Fiji, and Polychrosis botrana[Lobesia botrana], Schiff., in Samoa and the Ellice Islands; the Tineids, Agonoxena argaula, Meyr., attacking coconuts in Samoa, the Ellice Islands and Fiji, a species of Plutella, probably P. maculipennis, Curt, (cruciferarum, Zell.) on cauliflowers, Prays citri, Mill., on Citrus, also recorded from Fiji, Platyedra gossypiella[Pectinophora gossypiella], Saund., on cotton, and Phthorimaea heliopa, Low. ; and the Trypetid, Dacus (Chaetodacus) xanthodes, Broun, the common fruit-fly in Samoa, on bread-fruit [Artocarpus incisa] and other fruits including tomato, the latter showing no external injury.
The author considers that Swezey's record of Cosmopteryx dulcivora, Meyr., on sugar-cane in Samoa is extremely doubtful, since no adults were obtained and the determination was based on the similarity of the damage to that done by C. dulcivora. The Coccinellid, Coccinella transversalis, F., was found destroying Aphids on cucumbers and other plants.