Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Thirty-second Report of the State Entomologist on-Injurious and other Insects of the State of New York, 1916.

Abstract

This valuable report deals comprehensively with the more important insect pests of 1916, including such fruit tree pests as Cydia pomonella, L., Rhagoletis pomonella, Walsh, Taeniothrips inconsequens, Uzel (pyri, Dan.), Malacosoma americana, F., Psylla pyricola[Cacopsylla pyricola], Forst., Aspidiotus perniciosus[Diaspidiotus perniciosus], Comst., and others.
Shade-tree insects include the sawfly, Caulacampus acericaulis, MacG. (maple leaf-stem borer), Mycetobia divergens, Wlk. (bleeding tree maggot), Chaitophorus lyropicta, Kessler (Norway maple Aphid), recorded in former reports as C. aceris, and Eulecanium magnoliarum, Ckll. (magnolia scale). Forest pests include Scolytus (Eccoptogaster) quadrispinosus (hickory bark-beetle), Sinoxylon basilare, Say (red-shouldered limb borer) and Neoclytus erythrocephalus, F.
Numerous garden pests are recorded, the lesser known species including Papaipema purpurifascia, G. & R. (columbine borer), Epargyreus tityrus, F. (silver-spotted skipper) attacking locust trees and wistaria, Achatodes zeae, Harr. (spindle worm), attacking elder and also reported from maize, and Zophodia grossulariae, Pack, (gooseberry fruit worm).
Greenhouse pests include Callopistria floridensis, Gn. (Florida fern caterpillar), which ruined over 3, 000 ferns belonging to one grower, Boston and maiden-hair fern being the species preferred. This moth breeds practically throughout the year. The use of poisons being apt to injure the plants, hand-picking is the measure recommended, but above all, every precaution against the introduction of the moth should be taken. Neocerata (Dasyneura) rhodophaga, Coq. (rose gall midge) is frequently the cause of serious loss, attacking the young leaf or flower buds and causing malformations. Breeding is continuous from May to October, only two weeks being required to complete the life-cycle. Eggs are laid in the developing rose tips. As the repeated fumigations necessary to destroy the larvae are apt to endanger the plants, it is suggested that the greenhouse should be thoroughly cleared out during the winter when the insects are dormant in the soil, or thoroughly sprayed with a contact insecticide such as kerosene emulsion. Diarthronomyia hypogaea, Lw. (chrysanthemum gall midge) is a recently introduced pest that is rapidly becoming widely disseminated. It has been fully described in a previous report [see this Review, Ser. A, iv., p. 445].
Grass and clover insects include the white grubs, Lachnosterna (Phyllophaga) fusca, Frohl., which in some cases greatly injured potato crops. Planting of crops should be timed so that white grub injury will be at the minimum. The grubs have been largely held in check during 1917 by the Asilid, Promachus fitchii, O.S. Hypera (Phytonomus) meles, F., is a weevil found on red clover, in association with Tychius picirostris, F. Early cutting of clover for hay prevents serious injury by these insects.
Miscellaneous insects that have been troublesome include Silvanus surinamensis[Oryzaephilus surinamensis], L. (saw-toothed grain beetle), a common species in cereal preparations and found occasionally in large numbers in grain bins. The remedy is to clean out granaries and grain bins every few months; thorough fumigation with carbon bisulphide or hydrocyanic acid gas should be given when necessary. Barypeithes pellucidus, Boh., is a recently introduced weevil, found feeding upon dead leaves in an apple orchard. It is said to attack strawberry plants in Europe. Diestrammena marmorata, Haan (Japanese spotted camel cricket) is nocturnal in habit, living under logs and stones and in moist woodlands. These insects are said to be almost omnivorous, readily eating meat, fruit and vegetables. If injury from them should become serious, Kansas bait should be used to destroy them.
Carbon tetrachloride was tested as a museum fumigant with very satisfactory results. It was used at the rate of approximately one-eighth pint to 2 0.5 cub. ft. of space. The insecticide was placed in a series of several watch-glasses so as to secure a maximum evaporating surface, and the case was tightly closed for 2 or more days. This fumigation killed beetles and larvae, but was apparently ineffective against the eggs of Attagenus piceus[Attagenus unicolor], Oliv. (black carpet beetle). It is a much safer fumigant than carbon bisulphide.
This bulletin also contains a lengthy appendix which constitutes Part V of the author's valuable monograph on gall midges.