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About the Invasive Species Compendium

The Invasive Species Compendium (ISC) is an encyclopedic resource that brings together a wide range of different types of science-based information to support decision-making in invasive species management worldwide. It comprises detailed datasheets that have been written by experts, edited by an independent scientific organization, peer reviewed and enhanced with data from specialist organizations, images, maps, and a bibliographic database of abstracts and full text articles. New datasheets and data sets continue to be added, datasheets are reviewed and updated, and new scientific literature is included  on a weekly basis.

The ISC has been resourced by a diverse international Consortium of government departments, non-governmental organizations and private companies.

Please cite the Compendium as follows:

For the compilation as a whole
CABI, current year. Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet where authors are attributed in the Contributor section
CABI, current year. Fallopia japonica [original text by AN Author]. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet where no author is attributed
CABI, current year. Fallopia japonica. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Breakdown of content in the ISC

Full datasheets: comprise fully referenced sections on taxonomy and nomenclature, distribution, habitat, identification, biology and ecology, species associations, pathways for introduction, impacts and management, complemented by images and maps, and supported by abstracts and full text articles. These datasheets are authored by species experts and peer reviewed.

Invasive species datasheets: This Compendium covers known invasive species, of all taxa, affecting natural and managed ecosystems, except human pathogens and concentrates on those species that have the greatest impacts on livelihoods and the environment.

At launch in 2012 over 1,500 full datasheets on invasive species and animal diseases were developed for inclusion in the ISC across the following groups:

35% plants (aquatic and terrestrial)
30% pests and pathogens of agricultural and environmental plants (terrestrial)
15% aquatic animals
15% pathogens of animals
5% terrestrial vertebrates

Animal disease datasheets: Priority is given to those included in the list of diseases notifiable to the OIE ( World Organization for Animal Health). Over 120 animal diseases and the associated pathogens are covered, with extensive information on diagnosis, epidemiology, economic impact, management and control. In general, full information is provided in the animal disease datasheet and fewer sections are included in the corresponding invasive species datasheet which deals with the pathogen. Although a few sections such as the distribution table are shared, it is recommended that you view both datasheets for full information and a link to the pathogen/disease is provided on the cover page of both types of datasheet.

Documented species datasheets: contain the same sections as the Invasive species datasheets but our authors have found little or no evidence that they are invasive species. They have been included in the ISC because CABI has been asked to document them, either because they are considered to represent an economic or environmental threat if introduced to new areas, or because they have been listed as invasive species elsewhere.

Habitat datasheets: Sample datasheets on habitats are included, providing information on risk of species invasion, impacts and management of invasive species.

Pathway datasheets: Sample datasheets on pathways for introduction and dispersal are divided into two categories:
Pathway causes (the reasons why a species is transported, whether accidentally or deliberately).
Pathway vectors (the physical means of transport).
These datasheets give information on the issues and management options concerning invasive species.

Basic datasheets: contain summary information in tabular format. They have been compiled mainly by data mining various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). The content should therefore be treated with caution and the original sources consulted before use. Basic datasheets are included for invasive species that have not yet been commissioned as full datasheets and datasheets related to invasive species such as hosts, threatened species (of conservation significance), natural enemies, vectors, pathways, habitats and countries.

Abstracts: Over 200,000 bibliographic records with abstracts and metadata are included in the ISC. This subset of CAB Abstracts includes the references cited in the datasheets and additional recent articles of relevance. This set of records grows each week, ensuring that the key recent literature is available for searching.

Full text: Access is also provided to over 4,200 articles in the CABI archive.

Library: The Library is a collection of specially selected full text articles which complement the more structured information in the species datasheets.

Glossary: Over 780 terms and their definitions have been compiled from various cited sources.

Relationship to other Compendia

The ISC is one of a series of Compendia published by CABI. The other five are subscription products with a different business model which is based on income from sales supporting their sustainability (updating and enhancement). More comprehensive coverage of crop pests, their hosts and natural enemies can be found in the Crop Protection Compendium (CPC; which has been continuously updated since its first publication in 1994. The Forestry Compendium (FC;; Animal Health and Production Compendium (AHPC; and Aquaculture Compendium (AC: are also long-established Compendia with extensive coverage of production and economic aspects as well as relevant pests and diseases. Datasheets on the most invasive species in each subject area are shared with the ISC which also includes unique content on species that are primarily of environmental concern. The recently launched Horticulture Compendium (HC; focuses on horticultural food crops and also has some shared plant and pest content with the ISC.

See here for more information about these Compendia or contact

Definitions used in the Invasive Species Compendium

The following working definitions have been applied during the development of this compendium.

Species categorizations

Invasive (alien) species: an (alien) species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with economic or environmental harm.
Source: McNeely, J.A., Mooney, H.A., Neville, L.E., Schei, P.J. and Waage, J.K. (eds) (2001) Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK. [Use of the term "species" in this context includes species, subspecies or lower taxa; also note parentheses have been added around 'alien' by CABI because the Compendium also considers species that are invasive in their native range].

Introduced species (alien, non-native): A species, subspecies or lower taxon, introduced outside its natural past or present distribution; includes any part, gametes, seeds, eggs, or propagules of such species that might survive and subsequently reproduce.
Source: CBD Guiding Principles

Native species: A species, subspecies, or lower taxon, occurring within its natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential (i.e. within the range it occupies naturally or could occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans.)
Source: IUCN, 2000. IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss caused by Alien Invasive Species. IUCN, Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.

(Plant) pest: Any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products.
Source: FAO, 2007. Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. ISPM Pub. No. 5. FAO, Rome, Italy.

OIE notifiable disease: Detailed criteria for inclusion of diseases in the list of those notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) are given in Chapter 2.1.1. of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (OIE, 2007). Each criterion is based on a measurable parameter, and if a disease fulfills at least one of these, it becomes notifiable. Potential for international spread is the most important criterion. Others include zoonotic potential and the ability to spread significantly within native populations.

Distribution categories

The distribution status for a country or region is based on all the information available - when several references are cited in the Distribution Table or map, they may give conflicting information on the species status. In particular, citations of earlier presence may be included even though there is an authoritative reference to indicate that the pest is now absent. An alternative view of the distribution records is provided in the datasheet report where the section 'Distribution Table Details' can be selected to display each referenced source as a row in table format. In some cases extra information concerning individual sources can be found there. This section is not provided by default when the Report option 'All sections' is selected because the more compact 'Distribution Table' is used in preference. It can be manually selected for inclusion in the datasheet report.

Only records of presence are shown in the default display of the distribution map. Please refer to the Distribution Table in the datasheet for records of eradications, former presence, interceptions, and unreliable or invalid records reported in the literature. The absence of a record on the map does not necessarily mean the pest is absent from that country or region, it may be the case that information for those areas is not available. Most distribution records arise from a report of presence at some time in the past; it is not within the scope of Compendia to seek absence records routinely. The Distribution text in the datasheet may also provide additional information.

CABI requests users to send additional distribution information, with appropriate published references, to the Compendium Coordinator, CABI, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK, email: Only records accompanied by a published reference can be considered for inclusion but personal communications may be recorded in the text until a published record becomes available. Data will be verified by CABI's scientific advisors, but this process will be greatly assisted if the relevant references are provided.

Categories of presence

Present (no further details): Occurring in a particular country or area (without details on range). May be abbreviated to 'Present'
Widespread: Occurring practically throughout the country or area where conditions are suitable
Restricted distribution: Present, but not widespread; used to indicate that the species does not occur in some suitable parts of the country or area. Other terms used for the same situation are: "Localised" and "Limited distribution"
Present, few occurrences: Reported occasionally or reports suggest its presence is rare or sporadic
Present only under cover/indoors
Present only in captivity/cultivation: It is not intended that pet, zoo, aquarium, botanical garden and ornamental occurrences are generally included in the Distribution Table, however this category may be the most appropriate for some records selected for inclusion. Occurrence in captivity and cultivation is more concisely described in the Distribution text
Confined and subject to quarantine: Confined to a particular area only and prevented from spreading to other parts of the country or area by regulatory control (quarantine) and official measures are taken to control or eradicate the pest within the confined area

The following FAO categories for plant pest reporting have been added to the Compendium:
Transient: actionable, under eradication: The pest has been detected as an isolated population which may survive into the immediate future and, without phytosanitary measures for eradication, may establish. Appropriate phytosanitary measures have been applied for its eradication
Transient: actionable, under surveillance: The pest has been detected as an individual occurrence or an isolated population that may survive into the immediate future, but is not expected to establish. Appropriate phytosanitary measures, including surveillance are being applied
Transient: non actionable: The pest has only been detected as an individual occurrence or isolated population not expected to survive and no phytosanitary measures have been applied

Categories of absence

Eradicated: Recorded at some time in the past but eradication was successful, so the pest is not present now
Absent, intercepted only: Only found in imported consignments, on entry or at the place of destination. It is not present now
Absent, formerly present: Recorded at some time in the past, but did not establish and is not present now. It disappeared without any special measures being taken
Absent, unreliable record: Species records indicate presence but they are considered unreliable because of ambiguous nomenclature, outdated identification methods etc.
Absent, invalid record: Species records indicate presence but the records are no longer valid due to changes in taxonomy, misidentification, erroneous record, changes to national borders etc.
Absent, never occurred: The country concerned officially states that the species has never occurred there. This category is not used comprehensively, usually only if there has been an incorrect report in the literature

For animal diseases, the categories used in data supplied by the OIE include:
Disease never reported
Disease not reported (date of last outbreak not known)
Disease last reported in [Date of the last reported occurrence of the disease in previous years]
Disease suspected but presence not confirmed
Reported present or known to be present
Serological evidence and/or isolation of the causal agent, but no clinical signs of disease
Disease limited to specific zones

Pathways for introduction and dispersal

Pathway cause: Why a species is transported, that is, whether accidentally or deliberately
Pathway vector: How, physically, a species in transported, that is, the physical means or agent
Carlton JY, Ruiz GM, 2005. Vector science and integrated vector management in bioinvasion ecology: conceptual frameworks. In: Invasive Alien Species: A New Synthesis (ed. by Mooney HA et al.). Island Press, Washington, USA.

It is acknowledged that the scheme now widely accepted by invasive species data publishers is that described in the technical note Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 2014. Pathways of introduction of invasive species, their prioritization and management (26 June 2014; It is CABI’s intention to apply this more recent schema to the data in the ISC datasheets and the Horizon Scanning Tool.


Work is ongoing to harmonize the Compendium taxonomy with the CAB Thesaurus. At this time, the Compendium taxonomic hierarchy is under revision.


The ISC includes data, text and pictures that in some cases remain the copyright of the organization or individual that developed them. Details of the copyright holders are provided in the Compendium. Please note that pictures supplied for datasheets created in previous Compendium have only been included when there is clear signed copyright agreement in place. However, if you as the copyright holder of an image included in this compendium wish to discuss its inclusion please contact us.

Content Licensing of the Invasive Species Compendium

Creative Commons Licence

Content in this work whose copyright is owned by CABI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence.

Text, illustrations and photos, other than those whose copyright is owned by a third party, are provided free of charge to anyone under the condition that the title of the resource and CABI’s name appear prominently in any copies made. This material is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence. Please read the terms and conditions. In addition, you must abide by the following conditions: trademarks and logos owned by CABI can only be re-used with the express written permission of CABI, so please approach us if you wish to use them; any material whose copyright is owned by a third party can be identified by the presence of a ©, by the statement “all rights reserved”, or by other clear labeling of copyright ownership, and are not available under this Creative Commons licence for copying or reuse; and you should not use the material in any way that states or implies that CABI approves, sponsors or endorses in any way your use of its materials.

Although CABI has taken reasonable care to ensure that the information, data and other material made available online is error-free and up-to-date, it accepts no responsibility for corruption to the information, data and other material thereafter, including but not limited to any defects caused by the transmission or processing of the information, data and other material. The information made available online, including any expression of opinion and any projection or forecast, has been obtained from or is based upon sources believed by CABI to be reliable but is not guaranteed as to accuracy or completeness. The information is supplied without obligation and on the understanding that any person who acts upon it or otherwise changes his/her position in reliance thereon does so entirely at his/her own risk. Information supplied is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional or medical advice.

Full Datasheets: Most datasheets on invasive species, animal diseases, habitats and pathways have been written specifically for CABI by a wide range of specialists from over 60 countries (see Contributors for a full list of acknowledgements). They are edited and sent to additional experts for peer review or updating as required. In some cases, datasheets have been provided by partner organizations and they are acknowledged on the cover page of the datasheet.

Basic Datasheets: Basic datasheets are available for species that are invasive (but not yet populated with full data) or are associated with invasive species, threatened species, country datasheets, pathway datasheets and habitats. Data have been downloaded from CAB Abstracts and other reference databases by a process of 'data mining' and automatic cross-checking. This data may provide useful indications of the identity, distribution and relationships of these entries, but it must be noted that not all the data in this form have been manually checked by CABI editorial team.

Last Modified date: The date of last modification of most datasheets can be found on the cover page. This date refers to the last time a modification was made to the text, to the distribution, or any other data for that entry. The latest datasheets to be published or updated appear on the Home Page prior to any search.

Distribution Maps
For detailed datasheets, geographic distributions have been researched by individual contributors and when available, enhanced with data from the following sources:

EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) PQR database, 2014.
OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), 2009
FishBase, 2004 . Froese R, Pauly D.

The distribution status for a country or province is based on all the information available - when several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the pest status. In particular, citations of earlier presence of a pest are included even though there is an authoritative reference to indicate that the pest is now absent. The additional level of detail can be displayed in the Table Details section in the Report tab section selector. Only records of presence are shown in the default display of the distribution map. Please refer to the Distribution Table in the datasheet for records of eradications, former presence, interceptions, and unconfirmed and invalid records reported in the literature. The Distribution text may also provide more information. The absence of a record on the map does not necessarily mean the pest is absent from that country or region: it may be the case that information for those areas is not available.

CABI is continually improving and updating the distribution data, and requests users to send additional information, with appropriate published references, to the Compendium Coordinator, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK, email: .



The first edition of the Crop Protection Compendium (CPC) was released, and recognised as an innovative and unique multimedia database. It was immediately adopted as the principal and most authoritative reference source for plant quarantine departments around the world. It is annually updated from income received from global sales; a model for sustainability followed for later Compendia on Forestry, Animal Health and Production, and Aquaculture.


The role of data in the CPC was acknowledged as benefiting the management of newly defined ‘invasive species’, many of which were already included as globally acknowledged, peer-reviewed, regularly updated and interlinked datasheets written by species-specialist experts worldwide.
Discussion begun with stakeholders and Compendia Development Consortia members of the potential role of Compendium technology and data in the emerging discipline of invasive species.


Action Item 53 of the US National Invasive Species Management Plan states: "The National Invasive Species Council, led by USDA, will produce an Invasive Species Compendium for North America. The Compendium... will include a broad array of searchable information relevant to the biology, distribution, and management of invasive species.... The project will be undertaken in close cooperation with CABI ..."
During a meeting of the Development Consortia of the Compendium Programme, members independently identified Invasive Species as a priority for a new global Compendium.


USDA and NISC led an international Expert Consultation as part of the initial Feasibility Study on producing an Invasive Species Compendium (ISC), leading to a report guiding further development.


A proposal to create the ISC in a two-module project, extending for 3 years, with a budget of US $3M, was prepared by CABI for USDA.


USDA and CABI held an international Inception Workshop in Washington DC on 15-17 November, at which stakeholders discussed and agreed issues relating to user groups, coverage, components, linkages, project management, sustainability and access.
The principle was adopted that the ISC should be published as an open-access resource, freely available, to all. The cost of the maintenance, updating and enhancement would be covered by funds raised by the Development Consortium or other external sources, since there would be no income from sales.


The functional specification and species coverage of the ISC were developed with Consortium members, content partners and potential users who were asked to provide feedback on planning documents. Plans for the website were discussed with Development Consortium members at the Annual Consortium Workshop in October.
A priority list containing the most important 1000+ invasive species, of all organism types, was identified for immediate collation, and a generic datasheet template agreed.
CABI actively discussed cooperation with other invasive species initiatives and is guided by the GISIN Invasive Species Profile Schema designed to facilitate information exchange. Collaboration with IUCN was formalized in December, with some Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) content to be incorporated into the Compendium.
Over 100 new datasheets and 100 reviews of existing datasheets were commissioned from specialists and edited. 75 datasheets were made available for incorporation from the GISD. Many more datasheets were enhanced and updated.
The editing system and platform for delivering the website were built and offer significant advantages in terms of data presentation, rapid publication of updates and linkage to CAB Abstracts and full text.
The Alpha website was presented to Consortium members and partners at the annual Consortium Workshop in November for discussion and setting of the next development priorities.


A further phase of commissioning added 150 new invasive species, 8 habitats and pathways and updates a number of existing datasheets.
USDA-ARS contributed 100 new datasheets on plant pathogenic fungi of concern to the USA.
Distribution maps where improved for all full species datasheets. Now you can download the distribution of each species as KML (Google Earth files) or CSV files to upload into modelling programs.
A glossary was added to the site to give the definition of over 780 invasive species related terms.
A project to fill all species with a missing image was initiated and will continue
A private Beta version was launched to the development consortia for feedback, leading the way towards the publication of the Invasive Species Compendium in 2011 as a gold standard open access resource, freely available to all.


An Advanced Search interface was added to retrieve datasheets by powerful keyword searches.
The open access Beta version was released in June with a request for feedback through survey and Consortium Member and contributor contacts.
New basic datasheets created for 6000 invasive species by data-mining trusted databases.
USDA initiated a major project entitled Invasives Causing Extinction in the United States (ICE) which aims to document the impacts of invasive species on the federally listed endangered, threatened and candidate species in the ISC and provide full datasheets on the invasive species to assist their management.


Full Open Access Launch of the Invasive Species Compendium

The Invasive Species Compendium was fully launched in April, freely available to all, with 1,520 Full Datasheets, 6,980 Basic Datasheets, 57 Library documents, 1130 Full Text articles, over 780 Glossary definitions, and over 75,700 bibliographic records.
Country datasheets were enhanced with lists of species and animal diseases.
Pathway datasheets were added to the browse tree to highlight their content which includes a list of invasive species associated with each pathway.
6 ISC training workshops sponsored by the EU were held in African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries to introduce the ISC, encourage its use and get feedback to improve the relevance of the ISC to those regions. 46 countries were represented and priorities for new datasheets and updates have fed into the sustainability programme.
28 datasheets on invasive species implicated in the decline of US-listed endangered species were commissioned for the ICE project.
Partnerships with other global and regional invasive species initiatives are being developed now that the ISC is open access.


New datasheets and reviews continued to be added with a focus on species prioritised at the African, Caribbean and Pacific workshops and 72 further datasheets for the ICE project.
Over 60 datasheets on invasive plants of the Caribbean were written for the ISC by authors at the Smithsonian Institution.
The number of detailed datasheets reached 1780.


The ISC was launched on a new web platform which provides better navigation between datasheets and improved searching across all content types (datasheets, abstracts, full text, ISC library and glossary). Within the datasheet content, additional filters have been added to the right of the screen to narrow down by datasheet type, full or basic status, geographic location (determined by records of presence in the Distribution Table) and taxonomic group. This means that simple criteria can be combined to narrow search results without using the Advanced Datasheet Search. Datasheet results can be sorted and exported to csv to be used in a spreadsheet.

The country datasheets have been expanded to include a List of Species and List of Animal Diseases with full datasheets. The statuses and references for each record are provided as well as a link to view each datasheet. Search for the country by name and restrict the content type to 'Datasheets' to view these useful tables. This may be a good starting point for exploring the ISC.

Registering for 'My ISC' means that you can save your searches and selected content for quick future access.

During 2014, 138 new full datasheets were published in the ISC, these included further species for the USDA-funded ICE project, datasheets written by authors at the Smithsonian Institution on Caribbean invasive plants, and other major invasive species requested by different user groups. Six further training workshops took place in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific, and quarterly newsletters were sent out to participants to update them on the new content added for those regions. Many other datasheets were fully reviewed by experts or updated by editors. Links to informative videos were added to 'More Resources'.


A feature was added to the Country datasheets to export species and animal disease records from both full and basic datasheets into a spreadsheet.

CABI started development work to provide a new online form to help our contributors write, review and submit datasheets.

This was a busy year for adding and updating datasheet content with 200 new full datasheets and a great figure of 1000 images added to the Compendium. Of the new invasive species, 135 contributed towards the USDA Invasives Causing Extinction project, 30 were Caribbean invasive plants and the remainder were individually prioritized.

On 5th June we were excited to announce the publication of our 2,000th full datasheet on Twitter - do follow @CABI_Invasives which has interesting news from CABI and further afield (and a new photo of the editorial team!).


This year 146 new datasheets and over 50 commissioned reviews were published plus many more updates. Preparations for a new platform were underway. Our user survey received a high response rate and provided useful information for further development planning.


The ISC, together with the other Compendia, was migrated to a new platform which was a large and complex task. This places the Compendium in a better position for future developments and has immediately enabled an improvement in reference hyperlinking and map presentation. Maps can now be zoomed to define an area and show subnational borders, labels and datapoints. Distributions of invasive plants surveyed by Arne Witt in Eastern and Southern Africa are now available to plot alongside datasheet records and an API for sharing distribution data has been tested.
While a new editing system was being built, editors worked on the design of a new Horizon Scanning Tool to be launched in 2018. 
Over 1 m unique visitors to the ISC were recorded this year.


The beta version of the Horizon Scanning Tool was launched in March. This helps a user identify and categorize invasive species that are not present in a ‘country at risk’ but may represent a threat because they occur in neighbouring countries, regions with similar climates, or countries with trade and transport links. The list of invasive species can be filtered using various criteria (e.g. pathways, habitats and taxonomy) to focus on sets of potential invasive species that may require more detailed risk assessment, surveillance, public awareness or direct action to prevent their introduction and spread. A premium version is included in the Crop Protection Compendium with additional filters for plant hosts and plant parts in trade and links to further pest datasheets only available in the CPC. The tool is supported by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID). Work continues to improve the tool based on user feedback and focussing on filling gaps in the datasets that drive the Horizon Scanning Tool.
Development of Compendia websites is on-going and a new ISC platform will be launched this year under CABI’s Action on Invasives Programme. This will add new content to the Compendium focusing on major invasive species that affect livelihoods in the least developed countries and will provide new opportunities for the future.

Production Team

Project Executive:

Cambria Finegold 

Programme Manager:

Gareth Richards


Peter Scott

Editorial Co-ordinator:

Lucinda Charles

Editorial Team:

Laura Doughty
Hannah Fielder
Lesley McGillivray
Ana Nunes
Mark Palmer
Nick Pasiecznik (Consultant)
Kate Pollard
David Simpson
Nicola Wakefield
Rachel Wood

Compendia Picture Editor:

Michael Amphlett

Platform Management:

Chris Parker
Phil Roberts
Derek Tapp

Software Development:

Phil Barton
Michelle Jones
Mattasser Nazir
Tony Pittaway
Derek Tapp
Guy Yeates

Web Development:

Neil Docherty

Administrative Team:

Sarah Cranney
Christine Davies
Kerrie Lawrence
Sally Moore

CABI wishes to acknowledge the very significant contribution to the concept and development of the Compendium Programme made by Charles Schotman who sadly passed away in December 2016.

Charles joined the Compendium Team in 1989 having worked extensively for FAO in plant protection and combined his scientific knowledge with a creative IT approach to build the databases behind the Compendia and the original product interfaces.