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Demand for space cooling is increasing with a rapidly growing population. Cooling is not only required for comfort life but also needed to store food and medicine. Cooling needs are fulfilled with conventional cooling systems that use huge electric power and also these systems are not environment...

Author(s)
Shujaa Arshad; Muhammad Umair; Rana Shahzad Noor; Chaudhry Arslan; Arslan Afzal; Zafar Islam
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 3, pp 400-404

Environmental pollutants are considered harmful not only to humans but to flora and fauna. Fluoride present in the soil, water or even in the atmosphere may adversely affect plants and ultimately cause serious negative consequences on the development, growth and maturity of crops. In this regard,...

Author(s)
Muhammad Nawaz; Muhammad Dawood; Kainat Javaid; Muhammad Imran; Zhao FengLiang; Shahzadi Saima; Shah, S. T. H.
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 3, pp 425-430

Genetic diversity in Maintainer (B-line) and Restore (R-Lines) is a corner stone for the development of sunflower hybrid varieties. Seventy-seven of each, maintainer and restorer lines were sown in field and data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. The results revealed that the mean...

Author(s)
Ahmad, H. B.; Sajida Habib; Chattha, W. S.; Rizwana Qamar; Shazia Saeed; Abdul Khaliq; Salsabeel Rauf
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 3, pp 431-437

Mithawan Hill Torrent is one of the thirteen Major Hill Torrents in District: Dera Ghazi Khan of Pakistan. The study presents management solution of Mithawan hill torrent flood water. The impact of constructing main dispersion distributor and management structures for equitable distribution in the...

Author(s)
Ahmed, T. F.; Shamim-Ul-Sibtain Shah; Sheikh, A. A.; Hashmi, H. N.; Khan, M. A.; Afzal, M. A.
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 3, pp 438-445

The consumption and production of olive is attaining great importance day by day in Pakistan. The table olive varieties with large sized fruit have great attraction for olive growers and consumers. The last three-years (2017-2019) study was conducted with the objective to evaluate varietal...

Author(s)
Sumrah, M. A.; Muhamad Jan; Azhar Hussain; Shoaib Akhtar; Hussain Nawaz; Muhammad Afzal; Humara Umar
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 3, pp 446-453

Deficiency of organic matter in Pakistani soils is well established fact. This deficiency of organic matter deteriorates soil physical properties and all related chemical processes in the soil. To overcome this issue, organic matter is added to these soils in so many forms like Farm Yard Manure...

Author(s)
Muhammad Fiyyaz; Ghulam Sarwar; Noor-us-Sabah; Tahir, M. A.; Muhammad Aftab; Manzoor, M. Z.; Sher Muhammad; Muhammad Latif; Ayesha Zafar; Imran Shehzad; Sarfraz Hussain; Aneela Riaz; Abid Niaz
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 3, pp 473-478

Beet root (Beta vulgaris) is an excellent source of natural red colorant. In the present work red beet root dye was prepared in the powder form and then candies were prepared using this red beet root dye as food color. The stability studies of both, the prepared red beet dye and candies were...

Author(s)
Alim-un-Nisa; Sajila Hina; Imran Kalim; Mohammad Khalid Saeed; Ijaz Ahmad; Naseem Zahra; Sania Mazhar; Shahid Masood; Muhammad Ashraf; Qurat-ul-Ain Syed; Rabia Shad
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 3, pp 552-558

Streamflow forecasting is a crucial hydrological variable. In the current study, the Artificial Intelligence (AI) based techniques: TB (Tree Boost), DTF Decision Tree Forest, SDT Single Decision Tree and conventional Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) are used for predicting streamflow...

Author(s)
Muhammad Waqas; Muhammad Shoaib; Muhammad Saifullah; Adila Naseem; Sarfraz Hashim; Farrukh Ehsan; Irfan Ali; Alamgir Khan
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 3, pp 580-598

Quality seed is an important attribute for higher yield and better crop production for famers and is a foundation of any crop species. Root to seed method is widely used in Pakistan for radish seed production but still low and inferior quality seed is being produced that cause a significant loss in ...

Author(s)
Ayesha Manzoor; Naveed, M. S.; Ali, S. R.; Danish Ibrar; Sairah Syed; Sharmin Ashraf; Rafiq Ahmed
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 4, pp 725-731

Olive cultivation in Pakistan is being commercialized at a fast pace in selected agro-climatic regions. The demand for local plants is increasing and no scientific study has been previously carried out to standardize propagation technology concerning optimization of light intensity under greenhouse ...

Author(s)
Muhammad Rafique; Muhammad Azhar Iqbal; Inam Ul Haq; Muhammad Ramzan Anser; Humara Umar; Muhammad Ashraf Sumrah
Publisher
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan
Citation
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021, 34, 4, pp 742-747

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