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Profiling of flavonoids from maize (Zea mays L.) landraces seeds with different colors using HPLC-MS/MS analysis.


There is a great genetic variation in the flavonoid content and phenotypic diversity in the color of maize, however little is known about the linkage between seed color and its systematic flavonoid profile. In this study, the flavonoid metabolic profile in mature seeds of two red maize landraces (V223 and V228), two black landraces (V026 and V147) and two purple landraces (V134 and V182) were analyzed. The content of total flavonoid in red maize seeds is significantly higher than that in black and purple maize seeds. The metabonomics analysis identified 211 flavonoid metabolites, including 10 polyphenols, 29 anthocyanins, 92 flavones, 26 flavonols, 18 flavanones, 10 isoflavones and 26 flavonoids. The clustering analysis and principal component analysis show that seeds of maize landraces with same color have similar flavonoid metabolites. A large number of differentially expressed metabolites were identified among different landraces. Moreover, the content of most anthocyanin metabolites in black and purple seeds is higher than that in red seeds. Especially, the level of cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside and delphinidin O-malonyl hexoside in black and purple seeds is more than 4 orders of magnitude higher than that in red seeds. Our study facilitates a better understanding of flavonoid metabolites among maize landraces with different color, which provides important cues and information for the maize color improvement.

Abstract details