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Forest Science Database

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In 1976, spruce budworm [Choristoneura fumiferana] infested plots in a stand in northern Wisconsin where aspen and paper birch [Populus, Betula papyrifera] had been thinned from above or below or clear felled in 1950 (36 yr old), thinned from below in 1953 or commercially or completely clear felled ...

Batzer, H. O.; Benzie, J. W.; Popp, M. P.
Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 1987, 4, 2, pp 73-75