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Forestry Compendium

Comprehensive, encyclopedic resource for information on forestry

Changes to Compendia distribution data: the distribution tables, maps and references in datasheets have been restructured to handle the data better for updating and align with a geographic standard. Further details are available on the About page.

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About the Forestry Compendium

Why did we produce the Forestry Compendium?

The Forestry Compendium was conceived to meet the need for the improved dissemination of knowledge on forest trees. The pilot phase in Compendium development in 1994-95 resulted in a demonstration version of a PC-based multimedia system. This interactive demonstration version was produced by CABI in collaboration with the Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI; now part of the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, UK) in a project sponsored by the Forestry Research Programme of the UK Overseas Development Administration (now the Department for International Development - DFID). In 1995 CABI conducted a comprehensive survey of user needs for a Compendium for the Asia-Pacific Region, the results indicating an urgent need for the Compendium among a wide range of user groups.

In early 1996, CIFOR was approached and agreed to join CABI in preparing a joint project proposal for dissemination to potential members of a project Development Consortium. Efforts to build the Development Consortium for the project met with some notable successes in 1996. Therefore, a project to produce the Forestry Compendium - Module 1 - began in January 1997. In early 1997, the PROSEA Foundation became a full partner in the project, later to be joined by OFI and ICRAF. A project Inception Workshop was held at CIFOR in April 1997 and the Compendium concept was demonstrated at the World Forestry Congress in Antalya, Turkey, in October 1997.

Please cite the Forestry Compendium as follows:

For the compilation as a whole

CABI, current year. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford , UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet use the citation provided under the datasheet name or, where not present and authors are attributed in the Contributor section, use

Author AN, current year. Thanatephorus cucumeris. In: Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet where no author is attributed

CABI, current year. Thanatephorus cucumeris. In: Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.


Module 1 of the Compendium was published.

The Global Module was officially launched at the XXI IUFRO World Congress, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in August 2000.

The first Internet version of the Compendium was launched.

Development of the Forestry Compendium on a new web platform for launch in 2009.

New web platform launched.

New maps of species distribution, including grabbing-and-panning and zoom functionality.
New citation linking in text and tables to references at the end of datasheets.


Species Coverage

Trees: The detailed datasheets cover tree, shrub and bamboo species of importance to forestry and agroforestry in tropical/subtropical and temperate/boreal regions worldwide. The basic datasheets cover tree, shrub and bamboo species as well as other herbaceous forest species.

Forest pests: The Forestry Compendium shares some detailed pest datasheets with the Crop Protection Compendium, published by CAB International; 67 datasheets were commissioned solely for the Forestry Compendium; 200 were commissioned for the Forestry Compendium and Crop Protection Compendium and were selected because of their invasiveness or status as quarantine organisms. The remainder were initially commissioned for the Crop Protection Compendium but have been included in the Forestry Compendium as they attack important tree species.

Data Sources and Interpretation


The CABI copyright statement is included under Terms and Conditions. The FC includes data, text and pictures that in some cases remain the copyright of the organization or individual that developed them. Details of the copyright holders are provided in the compendium. Please note that onward rights to images held in other CABI Compendia have not yet been cleared with all copyright holders. Images should therefore not be copied from this website.


The Forestry Compendium contains data presented in datasheets of two types: detailed and basic. For the 1375 detailed tree datasheets, the information has been provided by chosen specialists and verified by an international team of experts. Datasheets on 81 Bamboo species have been supplied by INBAR.

Detailed Datasheets have been written specifically for the Compendium by a wide range of specialists (see Contributors for a full list of acknowledgements). For tree species, data are presented on: taxonomy, distribution, environmental amplitude, silviculture, pests and diseases, uses and products. A brief review of the importance of the species is also given. For pest species, data are presented on: taxonomy and nomenclature, host range, geographic distribution, impact and management.

Basic Datasheets: For about 20,000 species, basic taxonomic data from CABI's TREENAMES database are given. For many of these species, information on natural distribution is also provided, as downloaded from the USDA's GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) database. For basic pest datasheets, information has been downloaded from bibliographic databases held at CABI and elsewhere by a process of 'data mining', and automatically cross-checked. These data provide useful indications of the identity, distribution and relationships of these species, but it must be noted that data in this form have not been manually checked by experts.

Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Taxonomic usage for woody plants follows CAB International's TREENAMES database, which is used as the authority for indexing the names of woody plants in the CAB Abstracts bibliographic database. For detailed tree datasheets, usage in most cases conforms with GRIN. Scientific names for pests and pathogens follow CABI usage.

The Cover Pages of detailed datasheets list one English common name; for most species, other common names in English and other languages are listed on the Identity tab.


For detailed tree datasheets, a summary is provided of the main characteristics of the species, its potential and any disadvantages.

Geographic Distribution

Disclaimer: The presentation of material herein does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CABI concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its borders. The depiction and use of boundaries, geographic names and related data shown on maps and included in lists, tables and datasheets on this website are not warranted to be error free nor do they necessarily imply official endorsement or acceptance by CABI. The term “country” as used in the presentation of maps, lists, tables and texts also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

The Compendia datasheets draw species distributions from a database for the Distribution Table and map in species datasheets and for the species lists in country datasheets. A separate Distribution References list is linked to the sources cited in the Distribution Table and is presented below the main References list covering the other sections of the datasheet. Special focus is given to updating distributions and it may be the case that the Distribution Table and map are more up to date than the text in the datasheet.

CABI is using Geonames as the geographic framework to support the recording and plotting of distribution records on the map. This has resulted in some changes to the order and display of regions in the datasheets but provides better opportunities for mapping and data handling.

The distribution status for a country or region is based on all the information available - when several references are cited in the Distribution Table or map, they may give conflicting information on the species status. In particular, citations of earlier presence may be included even though there is an authoritative reference to indicate that the pest is now absent. A summary of the current status for a location is shown in the Distribution Table and map but with all the contributing sources cited. It is this summary status that is used by the Horizon Scanning Tool and the PRA Tool. An alternative view of the distribution records is provided in the datasheet report where the section 'Distribution Table Details' can be selected to display each referenced source as a row in table format. In many cases extra information concerning individual sources can be found there. This section is not provided by default when the Report option 'All sections' is selected because the more compact 'Distribution Table' is used in preference. It can be manually selected for inclusion in the datasheet report.

For basic datasheets, summary geographic distributions have been obtained from bibliographic databases by data mining as described above; other sources may also be cited. These data provide useful indications of the distribution of these species, but it must be noted that data in this form have not been manually checked by experts, and that the distribution indicated may therefore be incomplete or imprecise. 'Unconfirmed' records are not visible on distribution maps, but are included in the List of Countries.

Only records of presence are shown in the default display of the distribution map. Please refer to the Distribution Table in the datasheet for records of eradications, former presence, interceptions, and unreliable or invalid records reported in the literature. The absence of a record on the map does not necessarily mean the pest is absent from that country or region, it may be the case that information for those areas is not available. Most distribution records arise from a report of presence at some time in the past; it is not within the scope of Compendia to seek absence records routinely. The Distribution text in the datasheet may also provide additional information.

CABI requests users to send additional distribution information, with appropriate published references, to: Only records accompanied by a published reference can be considered for inclusion but personal communications may be recorded in the text until a published record becomes available. Data will be verified by CABI's editors, but this process will be greatly assisted if the relevant references are provided.

CABI distribution maps: CABI has been publishing the series of Distribution Maps of (Plant) Pests since the 1950s and Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases since the 1970s. These distribution maps are often cited in pest datasheets in the Compendium. From 1997, these maps are known as CABI/EPPO Distribution Maps and are cited as CABI/EPPO. For maps published before 1997, CIE or IIE may be cited for the Pest Maps and CMI or IMI for the Disease Maps.

Distribution categories

Categories of presence
Present: Occurring in a particular country or area (without details on range)
Present, Widespread: Occurring practically throughout the country or area where conditions are suitable. An alternative term is ‘Present: in all parts of the area’
Present, Localized: Present, but not widespread; used to indicate that the species does not occur in some suitable parts of the country or area. Other terms used for the same situation are: "Restricted distribution", "Limited distribution" and ‘Present: only in some areas’
Present, Few occurrences: Reported occasionally or reports suggest its presence is rare or sporadic. An alternative term is ‘Present: at low prevalence’

The following FAO categories for plant pest reporting have been added to the Compendium:

Present, Transient under eradication: The pest has been detected as an isolated population which may survive into the immediate future and, without phytosanitary measures for eradication, may establish. Appropriate phytosanitary measures have been applied for its eradication
Present, Transient under surveillance: The pest has been detected as an individual occurrence or an isolated population that may survive into the immediate future, but is not expected to establish. Appropriate phytosanitary measures, including surveillance are being applied
Present, Transient non actionable: The pest has only been detected as an individual occurrence or isolated population not expected to survive and no phytosanitary measures have been applied

Categories of absence

Absent, Eradicated: Recorded at some time in the past but eradication was successful, so the pest is not present now
Absent, Intercepted only: Only found in imported consignments, on entry or at the place of destination. It is not present now
Absent, Formerly present: Recorded at some time in the past, but either it did not establish or it disappeared without any special measures being taken. An alternative term is ‘Absent: pest no longer present’
Absent, Never occurred: The country concerned officially states that the species has never occurred there. This category is not used comprehensively, usually only if there has been an incorrect report in the literature

Additional attributes are included when available as follows (those with * below were added in 2020). These statuses may not have been added comprehensively to all distribution records for a species and are supplementary to the primary status of present or absent. 


Native: Occurring within its natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans
Introduced: Introduced outside its natural past or present distribution by direct or indirect human agency. Alternative terms are ‘Alien’, ‘Non-native’, ‘Exotic’
Native and introduced*: In different parts of the area. Previously this would have been entered as ‘Native’ to the area
Reintroduced*: Reintroduced through human activity, either on purpose or accidentally. It is implied that the species was originally native to the area. Previously entered as 'Introduced'
Cryptogenic*: A species that is not demonstrably native or introduced


Naturalized*: An introduced species that has established outside captivity/cultivation Invasive: A naturalized species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with economic or environmental harm. In a few cases native species have been reported as invasive, further details of these situations are provided in the datasheet text

First Reported and Last Reported: year or date


Only in captivity/cultivation: It is not intended that pet, zoo, aquarium, botanical garden and ornamental occurrences are generally included in the Distribution Table, however this category may be the most appropriate for some records selected for inclusion. Occurrence in captivity and cultivation is more concisely described in the Distribution text

Only undercover/indoors: e.g. species only occurs in protected cultivation

Planted: Used for trees in the Forestry Compendium. It should be noted that distinguishing natural from planted distribution is often difficult for species which have become widely naturalized outside their native range. Generally, a species is recorded as planted if it is being deliberately established for economic purposes.

Record quality (for absence records)

Confirmed absent by survey
No presence record(s)
Unconfirmed presence record(s): Species records indicate presence but they are considered unreliable because of ambiguous nomenclature, outdated identification methods etc. Previously recorded as ‘Absent, unconfirmed’ or ‘Absent, unreliable record’ Invalid presence record(s): Species records indicate presence but the records are no longer valid due to changes in taxonomy, misidentification, erroneous record, changes to national borders etc. Previously recorded as ‘Absent, invalid record’

Reference types used for species distributions

Compendia distributions are based on published records from the research literature, and authoritative species lists, databases and websites. A few are supported by collection records and correspondence. These have been reviewed by the datasheet author, reviewer or CABI editor and full details are provided in the Distribution References list, linked to a CAB Abstracts bibliographic record where possible. A CABI (Undated) citation has been used in three situations:

CABI Compendium: Summary status as determined by CABI editor. The status for the location has been summarized from all the available information, often with advice from the datasheet author or reviewer. No single reference has been selected to represent the current status that is displayed in the Distribution Table and used for generating the map

CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. A record of presence in a state or province has been used to support presence at the national level but a specific reference has not been selected for that country

Pre-2020 CABI Compendium record not linked to a full reference citation. Efforts have been made to link each record with a reference but it has not always been possible. An indication of the source may be included in the Notes and it may be possible to find the citation in the general References list for the datasheet

Data mining has been used to populate the distributions for basic datasheets where indicated. The primary source for this is CAB Abstracts, but in 2011 the following databases were included for invasive species:

CONABIO Information system on invasive species in Mexico in the Enciclovida portal
DAISIE Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (no longer available online)
Invasive Plant Atlas USA Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States
GISD Global Invasive Species Database
Massey University - New Zealand weeds database
NOBANIS North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species 


Environmental Amplitude

Efforts have been made to record known climatic and edaphic ranges for species with detailed datasheets. Particularly for climatic tolerances, the state of knowledge varies greatly from species to species and from region to region.

Climatic data for 30 species of major importance have been revised by CSIRO (Trevor Booth and Tom Jovanovic):
Acacia nilotica
Acacia senegal
Acacia tortilis
Albizia lebbeck
Alnus nepalensis
Azadirachta indica
Cassia siamea
Casuarina equisetifolia
Dalbergia sissoo
Eucalyptus degulpta
Falcataria moluccana
Gliricidia sepium
Gmelina arborea
Grevillea robusta
Khaya senegalensis
Leucaena leucocephala
Paulownia tomentosa
Pinus caribaea
Pinus kesiya
Pinus massoniana
Pinus merkusii
Pinus oocarpa
Pinus taeda
Prosopis juliflora
Samanea saman
Sesbania grandiflora
Swietenia macrophylla
Syzygium cumini
Tectona grandis
Toona ciliata

(The Forestry Compendium contains information on some species' climatic requirements derived from analyses carried out by CSIRO, Canberra, Australia. CSIRO does not represent or warrant that the information is accurate or complete. CSIRO disclaims liability for all loss, damages and costs incurred by any person as a result of relying on the information in the Forestry Compendium).

Silviculture and Management

For most species with detailed datasheets, detailed text is presented on silvicultural practice. In some cases, a comprehensive worldwide review of practice is given; where the information refers mainly to experience with the species in a particular country or region, this is generally indicated. The Management section usually focuses on growth and yield data; this information is strongly dependent on site and can only be used as a general guide to productivity.


Efforts have been made to review information on major pest and disease problems for species with detailed datasheets. Data supplied by authors have been supplemented by records from CAB Abstracts.


Attention is drawn to this section, which should be taken into account when making decisions on choice of species. Serious disadvantages have been flagged for 192 species, including cases where species are aggressive colonizers, have potential to be weedy, are hosts to pests of major crop plants, or suffer from a major pest when in plantation.


Many of the English terms and definitions are from the Dictionary of Forestry, published by CABI Publishing and the Society of American Foresters (SAF) in 1998 (editor J. A. Helms). The 1998 SAF Dictionary is a revision of the Terminology of Forest Science, Technology, Practice and Products, published by the Society of American Foresters in 1971 (editor F. C. Ford-Robertson). Additional English terms and definitions (particularly those relating to wood properties and products, which are not covered by the 1998 SAF Dictionary) are from the 1971 Ford-Robertson terminology.

With the kind permission of the Conseil internationale de la langue française, the French terms and definitions, and the equivalent Spanish and German terms, are from an updated database which is based on the French version of the Ford-Robertson terminology, first published in 1975 (editor A. Métro).

Many other terminologies and publications were consulted during the course of selection and compilation of the glossary, including the Terminologia forestal multilingual forest terminology with Hispano-American terms, published by the Madrid Forest Research Institute in 1968, the 'Dictionnaire trilingue des bois ronds et des bois sciés', published by the Centre Technique du Bois et de l'Ameublement (CTBA) in 1995, and the Glossário em dasonomia of 1974, publication IS No 4 of the Instituto Florestal, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Bibliographic Data

For species with detailed datasheets, references given are those supplied by datasheet authors; these citations include abstracts from TREECD, published by CAB International with cooperation from the Oxford Forestry Institute Library (now part of Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, UK). These references have been supplemented by an additional search profile run on TREECD by editorial staff at CAB International. Cited references and abstracts can be viewed directly from within a datasheet.


Some pictures originally supplied for the Crop Protection Compendium have been included in the Forestry Compendium. Permissions have been sought; if you wish to discuss further, please contact the Project Coordinator, Forestry Compendium, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK; Email: .


Conseil International de la Langue Française (CILF), France

Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica

Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Forêt (CIRAD-Forêt), France

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation - Forestry and Forest Products (CSIRO - FFP), Australia

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy

International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), China

World Agroforestry Centre (WAC), Kenya

Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI), UK

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL), UK

Society of American Foresters (SAF), USA

Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, Curators of Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Taxonomy, United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS)

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service & Forest Service, USA

World Bank, USA

Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft (WSL), Switzerland


Contributors may cite their data sheets as follows:

CABI [year of access, e.g., 2017]. Acacia auriculiformis [original text by AN Author]. In: Forestry Compendium. Wallingford , UK: CAB International.


A full list of the individuals is available here.