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About the Forestry Compendium

Why did we produce the Forestry Compendium?

The Forestry Compendium was conceived to meet the need for the improved dissemination of knowledge on forest trees. The pilot phase in Compendium development in 1994-95 resulted in a demonstration version of a PC-based multimedia system. This interactive demonstration version was produced by CABI in collaboration with the Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI; now part of the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, UK) in a project sponsored by the Forestry Research Programme of the UK Overseas Development Administration (now the Department for International Development - DFID). In 1995 CABI conducted a comprehensive survey of user needs for a Compendium for the Asia-Pacific Region, the results indicating an urgent need for the Compendium among a wide range of user groups.

In early 1996, CIFOR was approached and agreed to join CABI in preparing a joint project proposal for dissemination to potential members of a project Development Consortium. Efforts to build the Development Consortium for the project met with some notable successes in 1996. Therefore, a project to produce the Forestry Compendium - Module 1 - began in January 1997. In early 1997, the PROSEA Foundation became a full partner in the project, later to be joined by OFI and ICRAF. A project Inception Workshop was held at CIFOR in April 1997 and the Compendium concept was demonstrated at the World Forestry Congress in Antalya, Turkey, in October 1997.

Please cite the Forestry Compendium as follows:

For the compilation as a whole

CABI, current year. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford , UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet where no author is attributed

CABI, current year. Thanatephorus cucumeris. In: Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet where authors are attributed in the Contributor section

CABI, current year. Thanatephorus cucumeris [original text by AN Author]. In: Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.


Module 1 of the Compendium was published.

The Global Module was officially launched at the XXI IUFRO World Congress, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in August 2000.

The first Internet version of the Compendium was launched.

Development of the Forestry Compendium on a new web platform for launch in 2009.

New web platform launched.

New maps of species distribution, including grabbing-and-panning and zoom functionality.
New citation linking in text and tables to references at the end of datasheets.


Species Coverage

Trees: The detailed datasheets cover tree, shrub and bamboo species of importance to forestry and agroforestry in tropical/subtropical and temperate/boreal regions worldwide. The basic datasheets cover tree, shrub and bamboo species as well as other herbaceous forest species.

Forest pests: The Forestry Compendium shares some detailed pest datasheets with the Crop Protection Compendium, published by CAB International; 67 datasheets were commissioned solely for the Forestry Compendium; 200 were commissioned for the Forestry Compendium and Crop Protection Compendium and were selected because of their invasiveness or status as quarantine organisms. The remainder were initially commissioned for the Crop Protection Compendium but have been included in the Forestry Compendium as they attack important tree species.

Data Sources and Interpretation


The CABI copyright statement is included under Terms and Conditions. The FC includes data, text and pictures that in some cases remain the copyright of the organization or individual that developed them. Details of the copyright holders are provided in the compendium. Please note that onward rights to images held in other CABI Compendia have not yet been cleared with all copyright holders. Images should therefore not be copied from this website.


The Forestry Compendium contains data presented in datasheets of two types: detailed and basic. For the 1375 detailed tree datasheets, the information has been provided by chosen specialists and verified by an international team of experts. Datasheets on 81 Bamboo species have been supplied by INBAR.

Detailed Datasheets have been written specifically for the Compendium by a wide range of specialists (see Contributors for a full list of acknowledgements). For tree species, data are presented on: taxonomy, distribution, environmental amplitude, silviculture, pests and diseases, uses and products. A brief review of the importance of the species is also given. For pest species, data are presented on: taxonomy and nomenclature, host range, geographic distribution, impact and management.

Basic Datasheets: For about 20,000 species, basic taxonomic data from CABI's TREENAMES database are given. For many of these species, information on natural distribution is also provided, as downloaded from the USDA's GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) database. For basic pest datasheets, information has been downloaded from bibliographic databases held at CABI and elsewhere by a process of 'data mining', and automatically cross-checked. These data provide useful indications of the identity, distribution and relationships of these species, but it must be noted that data in this form have not been manually checked by experts.

Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Taxonomic usage for woody plants follows CAB International's TREENAMES database, which is used as the authority for indexing the names of woody plants in the CAB Abstracts bibliographic database. For detailed tree datasheets, usage in most cases conforms with GRIN. Scientific names for pests and pathogens follow CABI usage.

The Cover Pages of detailed datasheets list one English common name; for most species, other common names in English and other languages are listed on the Identity tab.


For detailed tree datasheets, a summary is provided of the main characteristics of the species, its potential and any disadvantages.

Geographic Distribution

Trees: Efforts have been made to record both natural and planted distribution of species with detailed datasheets. It should be noted that distinguishing natural from planted distribution is often difficult for species which have become widely naturalized outside their natural range; generally 'planted' is recorded where a species is being deliberately established for economic purposes. When data on (natural) distribution is given for species with basic datasheets, this has been obtained from the USDA's GRIN database.

Pests: For full datasheets, geographic distributions have been researched by individual contributors and are based on the available records in the literature at the time of going to press. It is important to note that the absence of a record on the map does NOT necessarily mean the pest is absent from that country or region, but that information for those areas is not available. CABI intends to supplement and update distribution information in the Compendium, and requests users to send additional information, with appropriate published references, to the Compendium Coordinator, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK; Email: Only records accompanied by a published reference can be considered for inclusion on the map; personal communications may be recorded in the text until a published record becomes available. Data will be verified by CABI's scientific advisors, but this process will be greatly assisted if you can provide the relevant references.

For basic datasheets, summary geographic distributions have been obtained from bibliographic databases by data mining as described above; other sources may also be cited. These data provide useful indications of the distribution of these species, but it must be noted that data in this form have not been manually checked by experts, and that the distribution indicated may therefore be incomplete or imprecise. 'Unconfirmed' records are not visible on distribution maps, but are included in the List of Countries.

CABI distribution maps: CABI has been publishing the series of Distribution Maps of (Plant) Pests since the 1950s and Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases since the 1970s. These distribution maps are often cited in pest datasheets in the Compendium. From 1997, these maps are known as CABI/EPPO Distribution Maps and are cited as CABI/EPPO. For maps published before 1997, CIE or IIE may be cited for the Pest Maps and CMI or IMI for the Disease Maps.

EPPO-PQR Database

Geographical records from the EPPO PQR database are included in full pest datasheets.

EPPO, 2013. EPPO PQR database. Paris, France : European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Some distribution data in the EPPO PQR database are prepared in collaboration with CAB International.

Environmental Amplitude

Efforts have been made to record known climatic and edaphic ranges for species with detailed datasheets. Particularly for climatic tolerances, the state of knowledge varies greatly from species to species and from region to region.

Climatic data for 30 species of major importance have been revised by CSIRO (Trevor Booth and Tom Jovanovic):
Acacia nilotica
Acacia senegal
Acacia tortilis
Albizia lebbeck
Alnus nepalensis
Azadirachta indica
Cassia siamea
Casuarina equisetifolia
Dalbergia sissoo
Eucalyptus degulpta
Falcataria moluccana
Gliricidia sepium
Gmelina arborea
Grevillea robusta
Khaya senegalensis
Leucaena leucocephala
Paulownia tomentosa
Pinus caribaea
Pinus kesiya
Pinus massoniana
Pinus merkusii
Pinus oocarpa
Pinus taeda
Prosopis juliflora
Samanea saman
Sesbania grandiflora
Swietenia macrophylla
Syzygium cumini
Tectona grandis
Toona ciliata

(The Forestry Compendium contains information on some species' climatic requirements derived from analyses carried out by CSIRO, Canberra, Australia. CSIRO does not represent or warrant that the information is accurate or complete. CSIRO disclaims liability for all loss, damages and costs incurred by any person as a result of relying on the information in the Forestry Compendium).

Silviculture and Management

For most species with detailed datasheets, detailed text is presented on silvicultural practice. In some cases, a comprehensive worldwide review of practice is given; where the information refers mainly to experience with the species in a particular country or region, this is generally indicated. The Management section usually focuses on growth and yield data; this information is strongly dependent on site and can only be used as a general guide to productivity.


Efforts have been made to review information on major pest and disease problems for species with detailed datasheets. Data supplied by authors have been supplemented by records from CAB Abstracts.


Attention is drawn to this section, which should be taken into account when making decisions on choice of species. Serious disadvantages have been flagged for 192 species, including cases where species are aggressive colonizers, have potential to be weedy, are hosts to pests of major crop plants, or suffer from a major pest when in plantation.


Many of the English terms and definitions are from the Dictionary of Forestry, published by CABI Publishing and the Society of American Foresters (SAF) in 1998 (editor J. A. Helms). The 1998 SAF Dictionary is a revision of the Terminology of Forest Science, Technology, Practice and Products, published by the Society of American Foresters in 1971 (editor F. C. Ford-Robertson). Additional English terms and definitions (particularly those relating to wood properties and products, which are not covered by the 1998 SAF Dictionary) are from the 1971 Ford-Robertson terminology.

With the kind permission of the Conseil internationale de la langue française, the French terms and definitions, and the equivalent Spanish and German terms, are from an updated database which is based on the French version of the Ford-Robertson terminology, first published in 1975 (editor A. Métro).

Many other terminologies and publications were consulted during the course of selection and compilation of the glossary, including the Terminologia forestal multilingual forest terminology with Hispano-American terms, published by the Madrid Forest Research Institute in 1968, the 'Dictionnaire trilingue des bois ronds et des bois sciés', published by the Centre Technique du Bois et de l'Ameublement (CTBA) in 1995, and the Glossário em dasonomia of 1974, publication IS No 4 of the Instituto Florestal, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Bibliographic Data

For species with detailed datasheets, references given are those supplied by datasheet authors; these citations include abstracts from TREECD, published by CAB International with cooperation from the Oxford Forestry Institute Library (now part of Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, UK). These references have been supplemented by an additional search profile run on TREECD by editorial staff at CAB International. Cited references and abstracts can be viewed directly from within a datasheet.


Some pictures originally supplied for the Crop Protection Compendium have been included in the Forestry Compendium. Permissions have been sought; if you wish to discuss further, please contact the Project Coordinator, Forestry Compendium, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK; Email: .


Conseil International de la Langue Française (CILF), France

Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica

Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Forêt (CIRAD-Forêt), France

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation - Forestry and Forest Products (CSIRO - FFP), Australia

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy

International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), China

World Agroforestry Centre (WAC), Kenya

Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI), UK

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL), UK

Society of American Foresters (SAF), USA

Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, Curators of Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Taxonomy, United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS)

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service & Forest Service, USA

World Bank, USA

Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft (WSL), Switzerland


Contributors may cite their data sheets as follows:

CABI [year of access, e.g., 2017]. Acacia auriculiformis [original text by AN Author]. In: Forestry Compendium. Wallingford , UK: CAB International.


A full list of the individuals is available here.