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Crop Protection Compendium

The world's most comprehensive site for information on crop pests

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Identification Keys

General resources

Lucidcentral Key Search

A number of interactive keys are being built using Lucid software developed by the Centre for Biological Information Technology (CBIT) at the University of Queensland, Australia. Relevant freely available web keys are included in the list below but this search tool provides information on many more. 

ID Tools
Website providing links to over 30 Lucid idenfication tools developed by USDA-APHIS’ Identification Technology Program (ITP).

US National Plant Diagnostic Network 
List of laboratories in the US for pest and pathogen identifications.


A Resource for Pest and Diseases of Cultivated Palms Walters TW, Redford AJ, Trice MD, Scher JL, Hodges AC, 2010. USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST
This key is designed to support palm surveys and includes the pests, diseases and disorders of palms occurring in or threatening the USA and Caribbean.

Ambrosia Beetles (Xyleborini): An identification tool to the world genera Hulr J, Smith SM, 2010. 
Xyleborini is the most important and species-rich tribe of ambrosia beetles. This group contains more invasive pests than all other ambrosia beetle groups combined. 

Anastrepha and Toxotrypana: descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys  Norrbom AL, Korytkowski CA, Zucchi RA, Uramoto K, Venable GL, McCormick J, Dallwitz MJ
Includes Lucid and Intkey tools, taxonomic information and images.

An identification tool for 66 aphid species, cosmopolitan and polyphagous in nature. Also contains illustrated fact sheets which describe the common name, host associations, distributions and economic importance.

Australian Soft Scale (Coccidae) Genera Hardy N, Kondo T
A Lucid key to the genera of around 80 soft scale species described from Australia.

Bark Beetle Genera of the United States
A tool designed to support the identification of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to the taxonomic level of genus without the need for expertise in the group.

Bark Beetles of the Southeastern United States

Bruchid Pest/Host Database Query Page (AGWest and CLIMA, Australia)
A database which helps identify key pests and various host plants.

Common Nymphal Grasshoppers of the Western United States 
An interactive, graphics based key used to identify the pre-adult stages of the most commonly encountered grasshoppers in the Western US.

Diabrotica ID Derunkov A, Konstantinov A, Tishechkin A, Hartje L, Redford AJ, 2013. Identification of Diabrotica species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from North and Central America. USDA APHIS PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, USDA Agricultural Research Service, University of Maryland, and Louisiana State University
A Lucid key to 112 species and subspecies of Diabrotica with fact sheets.

Flat Mites of the World Edition 2 Beard JJ, Ochoa R, Bauchan GR, Trice MD, Redford AJ, Walters TW, Mitter C, 2012. Identification Technology Program, CPHST, PPQ, APHIS, USDA; Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Includes interactive Lucid keys, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to help identify the 36 genera of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) from the USA and around the world, as well as specific diagnostics for 20 spp. of Raoiella, 19 species of Brevipalpus, and Tenuipalpus pacificus.

Grasshoppers of the Western United States, Edition 3
Identifying adult grasshoppers.

Guide to Insects & Mites Attacking Woody Ornamentals (Nebraska)

Guide to Palearctic Flea Beetle genera

Identification Keys for Insect Pests in Pacific Northwest Field Crops
A tool for identifying damaging stages of insect pests that commonly occur in Pacific Northwest field crops.

Identification of the Whitefly Genera (Hemiptera-Sternorrhyncha-Aleyrodidae) Dooley JW, 2011. USDA/APHIS.
A Lucid Key of the 4th pupal stage of whitefly.

Insect and Related Pests of Field Crops: Some important, common and potential pests in North Carolina
A general key to adults of economically important insect families and related pests, and field keys to the insect pests of each major crop based on the morphology and damage of the injurious life stages. In addition to the keys, illustrations of individual insects are also presented. 

Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants: Some important, common, and potential pests in the southeastern United States
Keys to adults and immatures of the pests of herbaceous ornamental plants.

Insect and Related Pests of Shrubs: Some important, common, and potential pests in southeastern United States
Descriptive keys to insect and mite life stages.

Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables: Some important, common, and potential pests in southeastern United States
Keys, pest descriptions, illustrations, and indices providing necessary information to identify the important, common insect or mite pests of vegetables grown in North Carolina.

Insect Identification Laboratory at Virginia Tech: A service for extension agents and citizens of Virginia
Includes keys and picture guides covering major groups of insect and mite pests in Virgnia. Contains some broken links.

Invertebrate pests of maize in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania), Akol AM, Chidege MY, Talwana HAL, Mauremootoo JR, 2001. Makerere University, TPRI, BioNET-EAFRINET, CABI & The University of Queensland
A Lucid key and fact sheets to 26 pests of maize in East Africa.

Ironclad ID: Tool for Diagnosing Ironclad and Cylindrical Bark Beetles
A tool designed to aid in the identification of adult Ironclad and Cylindrical Bark Beetles, a large, worldwide group of diverse, subcortical beetles in the family Zopheridae.

Key to Elaphidiini
A key to the Elaphidiini, a large tribe of primarily nocturnal longhorned woodboring beetles.

LBAM ID - Light Brown Apple Moth Tool
Tools for diagnosing light brown apple moth and related western US leafrollers (Tortricidae: Archipini).

Oncid ID: Tool for Diagnosing Twig Girdlers
A tool designed to aid in the identification of adult 'twig girdlers', a large group of longhorned beetles in the tribe Onciderini which are widely distributed in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, from the USA to Argentina.

Pink Bollworm and its Look-alikes
Includes keys to adults and larvae.

Pupal Key to Genera of Whiteflies Dooley J, 2001. 
A Lucid Phoenix key of 55 genera.

Scale Insects: Identification tools for species of quarantine significance
Produced by USDA-APHIS, four identification tools for scale families, mealybugs, soft scales and other scales.

TortAI: Tortricids of Agricultural Importance Gilligan TM, Epstein ME, 2012
Resources for identifying adults and larvae of tortricids that threaten agriculture in the USA. Pest species as well as common non-target species are covered in detailed fact sheets and interactive identification keys. In addition, a DNA barcode database allows for the confirm of identifications using COI barcode data.

Wood Boring Beetle Families
A Lucid identification tool to the world's families of wood boring beetles.

Wood Boring Beetles of the World
A comprehensive resource of identification and screening tools for wood boring beetles of the world.

Xyleborini Ambrosia Beetles: An Identification Tool to the World Genera

Plant Pathogens

Citrus Diseases Serrano D, Serrano E, Dewdney M, Southwick C, 2010. USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST
A symptom based Lucid key for the identification of diseases encountered during citrus surveys.

Diagnostic Keys to Tree Fruit Diseases Cornell University, 2001
Keys to the common diseases of apple, pear, cherry, peach and plum in the Northeastern and mid-Atlantic region of the United States are included.

Rust fungi of Australia Roger Shivas, Dean Beasley and Alistair McTaggart (2014)
An interactive key for species of plant pathogenic rust fungi (Pucciniomycotina) known from Australia.

Rust fungi of Southeast Asia Roger Shivas, Alistair McTaggart and Dean Beasley
An interactive key for the species of plant pathogenic rust fungi (Pucciniomycotina) known from Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

Smut fungi of Australia Roger Shivas, Dean Beasley, Alistair McTaggart and Kálmán Vánky (2013)
An interactive key for the 317 species of plant pathogenic smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) known from Australia.

Symptoms of Palm Diseases and Disorders Broschat TK, Elliott ML, Maguire I. USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST
This is the second of six tools being developed to support the screening and detection of pests and diseases of cultivated palms in the U.S. and Caribbean. This resource covers diseases, physiological disorders, physical injury and damage caused by hidden or microscopic arthropods.


Global Compendium of Weeds (Rod Randall, AGWest, Australia)
Weedy characteristics of 20,000 taxa of plants.

Federal Noxious Weed Disseminules of the US, Edition 2
This interactive tool provides photographs, text and keys that aid in determining whether or not an unknown disseminule (e.g., seed, fruit) found as a contaminant in imported botanicals and agricultural products is a Federal Noxious Weed (FNW) and is therefore actionable.

Weeds of Australia Identification Tool Navie S, Adkins S, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland, Australia
A Lucid key to over 1000 weeds is available free online, courtesy of the Queensland Government.

Invasive Species

Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
Listings and descriptions of plant species that threaten Pacific ecosystems.

Invasive Mites Tool
Tools for nine groups of commonly intercepted mite taxa, each with an interactive identification key.

PIAkey - Invasive Ants of the Pacific Islands
The Pacific Invasive Ant Key is an illustrated identification guide to invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region.


Agricultural Commodity Identification Aid Manual (California Department of Food and Agriculture, USA)
A pictorial index to assist inspectors with the identification of commodities not normally encountered in California.

Citrus ID
A tool designed to support the identification of host material during citrus pest and disease surveys.

Cut Flower Exports of Africa 
A tool to aid in the identification of genera of cut flowers produced in Africa and exported to major world markets.

Resource for Pests and Diseases of Cultivated Palms

Identifying Commonly Cultivated Palms
Identify cultivated palms, whether you have the entire plant or just a part of the plant.

Screening Aid to Pests of Cultivated Palms
A tool to aid the user in the identification of arthropod palm pests.

Symptoms of Diseases and Disorders of Cultivated Palms
A tool to aid the user in the diagnosis of palm diseases and disorders.

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