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About the Crop Protection Compendium

The Crop Protection Compendium (CPC) is an encyclopaedic resource that brings together a wide range of different types of science-based information on all aspects of crop protection. It comprises detailed datasheets on pests, diseases, weeds, host crops and natural enemies that have been sourced from experts, edited by an independent scientific organization, and enhanced with data from specialist organizations, images, maps, a bibliographic database and full text articles. New datasheets and datasets continue to be added, datasheets are reviewed and updated, and search and analysis tools are being built.


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Please cite the Crop Protection Compendium as follows:

For the compilation as a whole

CABI, current year. Crop Protection Compendium. Wallingford , UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet where no author is attributed

CABI, current year. Anoplophora glabripennis. In: Crop Protection Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet where authors are attributed in the Contributor section

CABI, current year. Anoplophora glabripennis [original text by AN Author]. In: Crop Protection Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Why did we produce the Crop Protection Compendium? 

The concept of such a relational database originates from an international workshop on information needs for crop protection, held in 1989 by CAB International (CABI) in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Technical centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA). Delegates anticipated that information technology would enable a more efficient delivery of crop protection information, and that the benefits would be felt particularly in developing countries where the dearth of information was greatest.

During the early 1990s, CABI developed a prototype system and consulted widely with many interested scientists, policy makers and other specialists throughout the world. After an initial feasibility study, supported by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), a further workshop was held in 1992. Delegates advised a balance between a factual core with information on pests (text, references, maps and illustrations) and utilities to interpret data to aid decision-making. Constructing the core was a priority and work should proceed in steps towards the goal of global coverage.

Potential users of the Crop Protection Compendium were consulted during a feasibility study in 1994 (supported by ACIAR). Researchers, lecturers, plant health officials, quarantine officers, extension specialists, policy makers and the agrochemical industry all expressed a clear need for the development; more than 40 institutions in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand were involved. A Development Consortium was created to fund the project, bringing together private- and public-sector organizations. Since its inception, many new members have joined the Consortium. Work began in 1995 to develop the first module targeted at South-East Asia, southern China and the Pacific region, but with global relevance.


Module 1 of the Compendium was published.

The Global Module was finished.

A major enhancement of the Compendium, including additional information of relevance to plant quarantine and a phytosanitary decision-support tool is published. Economic impact information is enhanced for 100 pests and worldwide data on crop losses due to pests is included.

The first Internet version of the Compendium is launched.

The Compendium is comprehensively updated to include 400 new datasheets on invasive plants and forest pests, new search facilities, a new key to invasive plants based on LUCID software, and new library documents.

Enhancement of horticultural crop coverage and development of the Crop Protection Compendium on a new web platform for launch in 2009.

New web platform launch.

New maps of species distribution, including grabbing-and-panning and zoom functionality.
New citation linking in text and tables to references at the end of datasheets.

Launch of Horizon Scanning Tool (beta) for prioritising invasive species threats.

Species Coverage 

Pests: This Compendium covers pests of agricultural and horticultural crops and, since 2004, forest trees. The species that have been selected for inclusion as full datasheets are those of major global or regional economic or phytosanitary importance. In addition to crop weeds, invasive plants of rangelands and woody invasive plants are also included.

Natural Enemies: Some detailed datasheets and a large number of basic datasheets are available on the natural enemies of the pests covered by full datasheets.

Crops/Forest Trees: Detailed datasheets on more than 200 of the major world crops are included along with outline datasheets on over 100 important tree hosts.

Data Sources and Interpretation


The CABI copyright statement is included under Terms and Conditions. The CPC includes data, text and pictures that in some cases remain the copyright of the organization or individual that developed them. Details of the copyright holders are provided in the compendium. Please note that onward rights to images held in other CABI Compendia have not yet been cleared with all copyright holders. Images should therefore not be copied from this website.

Detailed (or Full) Datasheets: Datasheets on over 2434 pest and natural enemy species have been written specifically for the Compendium by a wide range of chosen specialists from over 60 countries (see Contributors for a full list of acknowledgements). They are edited and sent to additional experts for peer review or updating as required. In some cases, datasheets have been provided by partner organizations and they are acknowledged on the datasheet. Outline Datasheets may contain some information from a specialist, supplemented with information compiled by our experienced editorial team.

Basic Datasheets: Basic data are available for a much broader range of pests, natural enemies and host plants. Data have been downloaded from CAB Abstracts by a process of 'data mining' and automatic cross-checking. These data may provide useful indications of the identity, distribution and relationships of these entries, but it must be noted that not all the data in this form have been manually checked.

Last Modified date: The date of last modification of most datasheets can be found on the cover page. This date refers to the last time a modification was made to the text, to the distribution, or any other data for that entry.

Distribution categories

The distribution status for a country or region is based on all the information available - when several references are cited in the Distribution Table or map, they may give conflicting information on the species status. In particular, citations of earlier presence may be included even though there is an authoritative reference to indicate that the pest is now absent. An alternative view of the distribution records is provided in the datasheet report where the section 'Distribution Table Details' can be selected to display each referenced source as a row in table format. In some cases extra information concerning individual sources can be found there. This section is not provided by default when the Report option 'All sections' is selected because the more compact 'Distribution Table' is used in preference. It can be manually selected for inclusion in the datasheet report.

Only records of presence are shown in the default display of the distribution map. Please refer to the Distribution Table in the datasheet for records of eradications, former presence, interceptions, and unreliable or invalid records reported in the literature. The absence of a record on the map does not necessarily mean the pest is absent from that country or region, it may be the case that information for those areas is not available. Most distribution records arise from a report of presence at some time in the past; it is not within the scope of Compendia to seek absence records routinely. The Distribution text in the datasheet may also provide additional information.

CABI requests users to send additional distribution information, with appropriate published references, to the Compendium Coordinator, CABI, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK, email: Only records accompanied by a published reference can be considered for inclusion but personal communications may be recorded in the text until a published record becomes available. Data will be verified by CABI's scientific advisors, but this process will be greatly assisted if the relevant references are provided.

Categories of presence

Present (no further details): Occurring in a particular country or area (without details on range). May be abbreviated to Present

Widespread: Occurring practically throughout the country or area where conditions are suitable

Restricted distribution: Present, but not widespread; used to indicate that the species does not occur in some suitable parts of the country or area. Other terms used for the same situation are: Localised and Limited distribution

Present, few occurrences: Reported occasionally or reports suggest its presence is rare or sporadic

Confined and subject to quarantine: Confined to a particular area only and prevented from spreading to other parts of the country or area by regulatory control (quarantine) and official measures are taken to control or eradicate the pest within the confined area

Present only under cover/indoors

The following FAO categories for plant pest reporting have been added to the Compendium:

Transient: actionable, under eradication: The pest has been detected as an isolated population which may survive into the immediate future and, without phytosanitary measures for eradication, may establish. Appropriate phytosanitary measures have been applied for its eradication

Transient: actionable, under surveillance: The pest has been detected as an individual occurrence or an isolated population that may survive into the immediate future, but is not expected to establish. Appropriate phytosanitary measures, including surveillance are being applied

Transient: non actionable: The pest has only been detected as an individual occurrence or isolated population not expected to survive and no phytosanitary measures have been applied

Categories of absence 

Eradicated: Recorded at some time in the past but eradication was successful, so the pest is not present now

Absent, intercepted only: Only found in imported consignments, on entry or at the place of destination. It is not present now

Absent, formerly present: Recorded at some time in the past, but did not establish and is not present now. It disappeared without any special measures being taken

Absent, unreliable record: Species records indicate presence but they are considered unreliable because of ambiguous nomenclature, outdated identification methods, etc.

Absent, invalid record: Species records indicate presence but the records are no longer valid due to changes in taxonomy, misidentification, erroneous record, changes to national borders, etc.

Absent, never occurred: The country concerned officially states that the species has never occurred there. This category is not used comprehensively, usually only if there has been an incorrect report in the literature.

CABI Distribution Maps: CABI has been publishing the series of Distribution Maps of Plant Pests and Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases since the 1950s. These distribution maps are often cited in pest datasheets. From 1997, these maps are known as CABI/EPPO Distribution Maps and are cited as CABI/EPPO. For maps published before 1997, CIE or IIE may be cited for the Pest Maps and CMI or IMI for the Disease Maps. More details are available from and

EPPO PQR Database

PQR is the database system on quarantine pests from the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. It provides data on all the EPPO and EU quarantine pests and many other quarantine pests of interest to other regions of the world. Some distribution data in the PQR database are prepared in collaboration with CABI; other sources are FAO, regional and national plant protection organizations and the published literature.

EPPO, 2016. EPPO PQR database. Paris, France : European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Pest distribution records from the EPPO PQR database are included in full and basic datasheets. This database is updated each year. Other citations included in the List of Countries for a pest may provide different information, please consult individual references for further details.

For further details of how to obtain the full PQR database, visit Enquiries about EPPO publications can be sent to the EPPO Secretariat

Natural Enemies

The following sources have been used to compile natural enemy data:

CAB Abstracts database.
Greathead DJ, Biocontrol Consultant , UK .
Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.
Pittaway AR , 1993. The hawkmoths of the western Palaearctic. Colchester , UK : Harley Books, 240 pp.
Tschorsnig HP, 1997. Tachinidae (Diptera) recorded from the Swiss National Park and adjacent areas, collected by Fred Keiser. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 70(1/2):101-116.

Distribution maps for natural enemies: For basic datasheets, summary geographic distributions have been obtained from bibliographic databases by data mining as described above; other sources may also be cited. These data provide useful indications of the distribution of these species, but it must be noted that data in this form have not been manually checked by experts, and that the distribution indicated may therefore be incomplete or imprecise. The BIOCAT database (Greathead and Greathead, 1992), which contains over 4300 records of introductions and releases of insect natural enemies for the control of insect pests up to 1990, has been used to provide geographical distributions for some natural enemy species.

Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.


Many terminologies and publications were consulted during the course of selection and compilation of the glossary.

Data on pesticides and biopesticides have been provided by British Crop Protection Enterprises (BCPE). The 2005 FAO Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms (published as International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) No. 5) has been included in English, French and Spanish; see the website of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) for the latest editions of the ISPMs.

Many forestry definitions are included from the Dictionary of Forestry, published by CABI Publishing and the Society of American Foresters (SAF) in 1998 (editor J.A. Helms). The 1998 SAF Dictionary is a revision of the Terminology of Forest Science, Technology, Practice and Products, published by the Society of American Foresters in 1971 (editor F.C. Ford-Robertson). Additional English terms and definitions (particularly those relating to wood properties and products, which are not covered by the 1998 SAF Dictionary) are from the 1971 Ford-Robertson terminology. With the kind permission of the Conseil internationale de la langue francaise, the French terms and definitions, and the equivalent Spanish and German terms, are from an updated database which is based on the French version of the Ford-Robertson terminology, first published in 1975 (editor A. Métro).

Some botanical illustrations are included from the University of Queensland 's Declared Plants of Australia key (2003 edition).

Bibliographic Data

In addition to records from CAB Abstracts and AGRICOLA, the bibliography includes a dataset, compiled by CABI, which contains 3500 records of relevance to IPM in South-East Asia (most with abstracts). The dataset concentrates particularly on grey literature normally unavailable outside the region and includes records from PUSTAKA Indonesia, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), SDIC China and the Brunei Ministry of Agriculture.

Other Data Sources

Data on pesticides and biopesticides are provided by British Crop Protection Enterprises (BCPE); on crops by Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA), with additions from CGIAR Centers and other specialists; on national economic indicators by the World Bank; and on crop production by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO). Pest distribution data from the PQR database and pest codes from the EPPO Code System are provided by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). Taxonomic, distribution and invasive data on economically important plants is included from USDA's GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) database.


Some pictures originally supplied for the Forestry Compendium have been included in this Compendium. Permissions have been sought; if you wish to discuss further, please contact the Project Coordinator, Crop Protection Compendium, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK; Email:

In some cases the orientation of the picture has been changed to give the best fit in the display space.

Maintenance and Updating

The Compendium has been and will continue to be updated to include new datasheets and updates to existing datasheets including geographical distributions and hosts from the CABI/EPPO mapping project and CAB Abstracts database, new pictures, data upgrades of FAOSTAT crop production, World Bank and EPPO-PQR databases, updated bibliography, and modifications to the Library as appropriate.

Training, Dissemination and Impact

CABI is working with partners to encourage the use of the Compendium in a variety of situations. If you or your organization would like to explore the possibility of training in the use of the Crop Protection Compendium, and/or linking the use of the Compendium to projects, please contact us ( ).

We are also interested in receiving feedback on how the Crop Protection Compendium is being used at your organization, and evidence of its impact. We welcome suggestions of potential improvements to the Compendium.


In addition to the Development Consortium and Partners, CABI gratefully acknowledges the following organizations for providing technical support and information:

Asian Vegetable Research & Development Centre (AVRDC)

Australian National University

British Crop Protection Enterprises Ltd (BCPE)

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)

Eastern Cereals and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), Canada

Horticulture Research International (HRI), UK

IACR/Rothamsted, UK

Institute for Crop Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)

International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA)

The Natural History Museum , London , UK

Natural Resources Institute (NRI), UK

Plant Resources of South East Asia (PROSEA)/PUDOC Publishers

PUSTAKA, Indonesia

Scottish Crop Research Institute, UK



CABI gratefully acknowledges the following individuals for providing technical support and information, for authoring and validating data sheets, and for providing illustrations. Further picture contributors are acknowledged in the caption accompanying each picture.

Contributors may cite their datasheets as follows: 

CABI [year of access, e.g., 2017]. Crop Protection Compendium. Wallingford , UK: CAB International.

CABI [year of access, e.g., 2017]. Fallopia japonica . In: Crop Protection Compendium. Wallingford , UK: CAB International.

List of contributors

A-D      E-H      I-O     P-S      T-Z