Invasiveness, biology, ecology, and management of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
Published: October, 2022
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith, 1797), is a serious pest of several crops, particularly maize and other cereals. It has long been known as a pest in the Americas and has invaded most of Africa and parts of the Middle East, Asia, and Australia in the last six years. Its new status as an invasive species causing serious damage in many regions worldwide has highlighted the need for better understanding and has generated much research. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of FAW covering its (i) taxonomy, biology, ecology, genomics, and microbiome, (ii) worldwide status and geographic spread, (iii) potential for geographic expansion and quarantine measures in place, and (iv) management including monitoring, sampling, forecasting, biological control, biopesticides, agroecological strategies, chemical control, insecticide resistance, effects of insecticides on natural enemies, as well as conventional and transgenic resistant cultivars. We conclude with recommendations for research to enhance the sustainable management of FAW in invaded regions.