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Biological control in Latin America and the Caribbean: its rich history and bright future.

Book cover for Biological control in Latin America and the Caribbean: its rich history and bright future.

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Chapter 7 (Page no: 108)

Biological control in Chile.

The first introduction of a predator of olive black scale in 1903 marked the start of biocontrol in Chile. In 1915 the Ministry of Agriculture began a programme of introduction of beneficial organisms and since then approximately 200 species of beneficial insects have been introduced into the country. Many complete and permanent successes were obtained in the period 1900-1969 and examples are control of: olive black scale; scales in grapevine, citrus, berries, avocado and other fruit; mealybugs in citrus, grapevine, avocado and other fruit; and woolly apple aphid in apple. The use of microbial control agents started in the 1950s and numerous microorganisms have since been collected, identified and mass produced to control pests and diseases. Weed biocontrol began in Chile in the 1950s with successful classical biocontrol of St John's wort with a phytophagous weevil, followed in the 1970s by using a plant pathogenic fungus for control of Rubus ulmifolius (zarzamora) and in the 1980s-1990s by releasing phytophagous weevils, moths and mites for control of gorse weed. An important large project executed during the 1970s and 1980s resulted in classical biocontrol of several virus-transmitting aphid species on thousands of hectares of wheat and barley. In forestry, parasitoids have been introduced for classical biocontrol of European pine shoot moth and of the sirex wood wasp in pine, and the eucalyptus psyllid in eucalyptus on vast areas. Currently, there are many commercial and governmental research initiatives for predators, parasitoids, entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes, and with bacteria and fungi for pest and disease control.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Biological control in Latin America and the Caribbean: information sources, organizations, types and approaches in biological control. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Bueno, V. H. P. Luna, M. G. Colmenarez, Y. C.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 21) Biological control in Argentina. Author(s): Greco, N. M. Walsh, G. C. Luna, M. G.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 43) Biological control in Barbados. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Colmenarez, Y. C.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 58) Biological control in Belize. Author(s): Sosa, E. E. Blanco, F. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 64) Biological control in Bolivia. Author(s): Franco, J. P. Crespo, L. V. Colmenarez, Y. C. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 78) Biological control in Brazil. Author(s): Bueno, V. H. P. Parra, J. R. P. Bettiol, W. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 124) Biological control in Colombia. Author(s): Kondo, T. Manzano, M. R. Cotes, A. M.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 162) Biological control in Costa Rica. Author(s): Blanco-Metzler, H. Morera-Montoya, R.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 176) Biological control in Cuba. Author(s): Márquez, M. E. Vázquez, L. L. Rodríguez, M. G. Ayala Sifontes, J. L. Fuentes, F. Ramos, M. Hidalgo, L. Herrera, L.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 194) Biological control in Dominica. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 199) Biological control in the Dominican Republic. Author(s): Serra, C. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 220) Biological control in continental Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands. Author(s): Castillo, C. C. Gallegos, P. G. Causton, C. E.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 245) Biological control in El Salvador. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 251) Biological control in French Guiana, Guadeloupe and Martinique. Author(s): Ryckewaert, P. Vayssières, J. F.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 261) Biological control in Guatemala. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 266) Biological control in Guyana. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 271) Biological control in Haiti. Author(s): Ryckewaert, P. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 275) Biological control in Honduras. Author(s): Trabanino, R. Pitty, A. Cave, R. D.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 290) Biological control in Jamaica. Author(s): Sherwood, M. A. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 308) Biological control in Mexico. Author(s): Arredondo-Bernal, H. C. Rodríguez-Vélez, B.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 336) Biological control in Nicaragua. Author(s): Castillo, P.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 345) Biological control in Panama. Author(s): Zachrisson, B. Barba, A.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 354) Biological control in Paraguay. Author(s): Cabral Antúnez, C. C. Resquín Romero, G. Gómez López, V. A.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 369) Biological control in Peru. Author(s): Mujica, N. Whu, M.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 390) Biological control in Puerto Rico. Author(s): Ramos, M. Ramos-Rodriguez, O. Gallardo-Covas, F.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 403) Biological control in the remaining Caribbean islands. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Bueno, V. H. P.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 426) Biological control in Suriname. Author(s): Sauers-Muller, A. van Jagroep, M.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 437) Biological control in Trinidad and Tobago. Author(s): Khan, A. Isaac, W. A. P.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 447) Biological control in Uruguay. Author(s): Basso, C. Ribeiro, A. Cibils, X. Chiaravalle, W. Punschke, K.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 457) Biological control in Venezuela. Author(s): Vásquez, C. Ferrer, F. Colmenarez, Y. C. Morales Sanchez, J.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 473) The uptake of biological control in Latin America and the Caribbean. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Cock, M. J. W.