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The handbook of microbial metabolism of amino acids.

Book cover for The handbook of microbial metabolism of amino acids.


This handbook explores the most recent advances in knowledge regarding amino acid metabolism in different microbial organisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, protozoa and nematodes, with emphasis on the similarities and differences in the way these organisms handle amino acids. Inclusive of 9 parts with 32 chapters overall, the discussions are presented per specific amino acid metabolism, incl...


Chapter 21 (Page no: 277)

The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in microorganisms.

In this chapter, the kynurenine pathway in bacteria, archaea, unicellular fungi and protists is reviewed. The kynurenine pathway is the major catabolic pathway for L-tryptophan metabolism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. There are two different kynurenine pathways, sometimes called 'inducible' and 'constitutive', in microorganisms. The former of these pathways results in the 'complete' catabolism of L-tryptophan, while the latter leads to the biosynthesis of NAD(P). The enzymes in the first pathway are tryptophan dioxygenase, kynurenine formamidase and kynureninase. The second pathway requires two additional enzymes, kynurenine 3-monooxygenase and 3-hydroxyanthranilate dioxygenase, to produce quinolinate and thereby lead to the NAD(P)+ biosynthetic pathway. Catabolism via the latter pathway requires three further enzymes, 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase, 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase and 2-aminomuconate deaminase. In addition, in some bacteria, metabolites of the kynurenine pathway are used for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Structural and functional properties of glutamate dehydrogenases. Author(s): Brown, S. Simcock, D. C.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 15) Glutamate decarboxylase in bacteria. Author(s): Giovannercole, F. Pennacchietti, E. Biase, D. de
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 29) The yeast γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shunt. Author(s): Locy, R. D.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 49) Lysine biosynthesis in microorganisms. Author(s): Hudson, A. O. Savka, M. A. Pearce, F. G. Dobson, R. C. J.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 70) Arginine deiminase in microorganisms. Author(s): Leroy, F. Charlier, D.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 81) Arginase and microbial pathogenesis in the lungs. Author(s): Lucas, M. J. R. Caldwell, R. W. Fulton, D. Chakraborty, T. Lucas, R.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 91) Arginine and methionine as precursors of polyamines in trypanosomatids. Author(s): Pérez-Pertejo, Y. Morán, J. M. Fouce, R. B.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 116) Ornithine and lysine decarboxylation in bacteria. Author(s): Lucas, P. M.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 128) The role of nitric oxide signalling in yeast stress response and cell death. Author(s): Ludovico, P. Sampaio-Marques, B. Osório, N. Rodrigues, F.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 142) Hydroxyproline metabolism in microorganisms. Author(s): Watanabe, S.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 153) Cellular responses to serine in yeast. Author(s): Dawes, I. W. Kornfeld, G. D.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 170) Threonine degradation in hyperthermophilic organisms. Author(s): Bashir, Q. Rashid, N. Akhtar, M.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 179) Methionine synthesis in microbes. Author(s): Wencker, F. Ziebuhr, W.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 198) Regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism in fungi. Author(s): Paietta, J. V.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 211) Insights on O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase structure, function and biopharmaceutical applications. Author(s): Campanini, B. Mozzarelli, A.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 223) Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-valine production. Author(s): Wang, X. Quinn, P. J.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 234) Flavour formation from leucine by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Author(s): Afzal, M. I. Delaunay, S. Cailliez-Grimal, C.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 244) Microbial degradation of phenolic amino acids. Author(s): Holmes, D. E. Smith, J. A.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 256) The biosynthesis of tryptophan. Author(s): Parker, E. J.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 267) Tryptophan biosynthesis in bacteria: drug targets and immunology. Author(s): Lott, J. S.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 291) Histidine degradation in bacteria. Author(s): Nieuwkoop, A. J. Bender, R. A.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 304) The histidine phosphatase superfamily in pathogenic bacteria. Author(s): Coker, O. O. Palittapongarnpim, P.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 315) Functions and metabolism of D-amino acids in microorganisms. Author(s): Takahashi, S. Abe, K. Shibata, K. Kera, Y.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 332) Pathways of utilization of D-amino acids in higher organisms. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 352) Rhizobial amino acid metabolism: polyamine biosynthesis and functions. Author(s): Dunn, M. F.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 371) Working together: amino acid biosynthesis in endosymbiont-harbouring Trypanosomatidae. Author(s): Alves, J. M. P.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 384) Amino acid metabolism in helminths. Author(s): Simpson, H. V. Umair, S.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 398) Microbial degradation of amino acids in anoxic environments. Author(s): Parthasarathy, A. Chowdhury, N. P.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 418) Utilization of N-methylated amino acids by bacteria. Author(s): Wargo, M. J.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 433) Biofilm formation: amino acid biomarkers in Candida albicans. Author(s): Cao, Y. Liao, Z.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 444) Recent advances underpinning innovative strategies for the future. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Departments of Chemistry and of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2017
  • ISBN
  • 9781780647234
  • Record Number
  • 20173125386