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The handbook of microbial metabolism of amino acids.

Book cover for The handbook of microbial metabolism of amino acids.


This handbook explores the most recent advances in knowledge regarding amino acid metabolism in different microbial organisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, protozoa and nematodes, with emphasis on the similarities and differences in the way these organisms handle amino acids. Inclusive of 9 parts with 32 chapters overall, the discussions are presented per specific amino acid metabolism, incl...


Chapter 5 (Page no: 70)

Arginine deiminase in microorganisms.

The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway comprises three central enzymes, namely arginine deiminase, ornithine transcarbamoylase and carbamate kinase, whose importance is often neglected in reviews of amino acid metabolism in microorganisms. The relevance of the ADI pathway is underscored by the early observations that under anaerobic conditions and in the absence of terminal electron acceptors such as nitrate and nitrite, fermentative arginine breakdown via the ADI system can be used as the sole energy source for bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis and Enterococcus faecalis, where the pathway and its enzymes were originally discovered. The wide distribution of the ADI system further emphasizes its role as a secondary energy-providing pathway in suboptimal or harsh growth conditions, such as low-oxygen, low pH, high-salt and low-carbohydrate environments. Moreover, the generation of ammonia via the ADI system may reduce pH stress in specific microniches containing high concentrations of organic acids. A role for ADI in bacterial survival and pathogenicity has been identified in clinical cultures, as shown for Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from patients with melioidosis. In food matrices, the ADI system may play a role in the establishment of specific microbial communities, as exemplified by the adaptation of Lactobacillus sakei to fermented meat matrices. Staphylococcus spp., which have significance for both clinical settings and food technology, also seem to benefit from the ADI system, albeit in a species- and even strain-dependent manner.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Structural and functional properties of glutamate dehydrogenases. Author(s): Brown, S. Simcock, D. C.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 15) Glutamate decarboxylase in bacteria. Author(s): Giovannercole, F. Pennacchietti, E. Biase, D. de
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 29) The yeast γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shunt. Author(s): Locy, R. D.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 49) Lysine biosynthesis in microorganisms. Author(s): Hudson, A. O. Savka, M. A. Pearce, F. G. Dobson, R. C. J.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 81) Arginase and microbial pathogenesis in the lungs. Author(s): Lucas, M. J. R. Caldwell, R. W. Fulton, D. Chakraborty, T. Lucas, R.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 91) Arginine and methionine as precursors of polyamines in trypanosomatids. Author(s): Pérez-Pertejo, Y. Morán, J. M. Fouce, R. B.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 116) Ornithine and lysine decarboxylation in bacteria. Author(s): Lucas, P. M.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 128) The role of nitric oxide signalling in yeast stress response and cell death. Author(s): Ludovico, P. Sampaio-Marques, B. Osório, N. Rodrigues, F.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 142) Hydroxyproline metabolism in microorganisms. Author(s): Watanabe, S.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 153) Cellular responses to serine in yeast. Author(s): Dawes, I. W. Kornfeld, G. D.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 170) Threonine degradation in hyperthermophilic organisms. Author(s): Bashir, Q. Rashid, N. Akhtar, M.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 179) Methionine synthesis in microbes. Author(s): Wencker, F. Ziebuhr, W.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 198) Regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism in fungi. Author(s): Paietta, J. V.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 211) Insights on O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase structure, function and biopharmaceutical applications. Author(s): Campanini, B. Mozzarelli, A.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 223) Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-valine production. Author(s): Wang, X. Quinn, P. J.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 234) Flavour formation from leucine by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Author(s): Afzal, M. I. Delaunay, S. Cailliez-Grimal, C.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 244) Microbial degradation of phenolic amino acids. Author(s): Holmes, D. E. Smith, J. A.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 256) The biosynthesis of tryptophan. Author(s): Parker, E. J.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 267) Tryptophan biosynthesis in bacteria: drug targets and immunology. Author(s): Lott, J. S.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 277) The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in microorganisms. Author(s): Phillips, R. S.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 291) Histidine degradation in bacteria. Author(s): Nieuwkoop, A. J. Bender, R. A.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 304) The histidine phosphatase superfamily in pathogenic bacteria. Author(s): Coker, O. O. Palittapongarnpim, P.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 315) Functions and metabolism of D-amino acids in microorganisms. Author(s): Takahashi, S. Abe, K. Shibata, K. Kera, Y.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 332) Pathways of utilization of D-amino acids in higher organisms. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 352) Rhizobial amino acid metabolism: polyamine biosynthesis and functions. Author(s): Dunn, M. F.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 371) Working together: amino acid biosynthesis in endosymbiont-harbouring Trypanosomatidae. Author(s): Alves, J. M. P.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 384) Amino acid metabolism in helminths. Author(s): Simpson, H. V. Umair, S.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 398) Microbial degradation of amino acids in anoxic environments. Author(s): Parthasarathy, A. Chowdhury, N. P.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 418) Utilization of N-methylated amino acids by bacteria. Author(s): Wargo, M. J.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 433) Biofilm formation: amino acid biomarkers in Candida albicans. Author(s): Cao, Y. Liao, Z.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 444) Recent advances underpinning innovative strategies for the future. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2017
  • ISBN
  • 9781780647234
  • Record Number
  • 20173125370