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CABI Book Chapter

Potato and sweetpotato in Africa: transforming the value chains for food and nutrition security.

Book cover for Potato and sweetpotato in Africa: transforming the value chains for food and nutrition security.

Description

This book is based on papers presented at the Ninth Triennial African Potato Association Conference, Naivasha, Kenya, 30 June-4 July 2013.The book focuses on the policies for germplasm exchange, food security and trade in Africa, seed systems, breeding and disease management and postharvest management, processing technologies and marketing systems of potato and sweet potato. The nutritional value ...

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Chapter 27 (Page no: 279)

Potato virus Y in South Africa: isolate characterization and assessment of potato cultivar resistance.

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most serious viral threats to potato production worldwide and throughout Africa, resulting in severe yield reduction. Management of this virus is key to sustainable potato production. The virus is spread by infected tuber material and aphid vectors. In South Africa, the pathology of PVY infections has changed in recent years. Disease diagnosis based on leaf symptoms became problematic, and diagnosis by means of ELISA testing was the only way to eliminate diseased mother tuber material. The PVYNTN strain has recently been found in South Africa which can cause potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) and this can lead to crop failure as tubers showing necrosis are unacceptable to the consumer. In this study we characterized the PVY strains which are currently responsible for infections in South Africa using whole genome sequencing and a novel approach to the phylogenetic analysis of these sequence data. We were able to determine that the older PVY ordinary (PVYO) and PVY necrotic (PVYN) strains had largely been replaced by PVYN-Wilga and PVYNTN strains since 1995. Presently, approximately 75% of the PVY isolates in South Africa are of the PVYN-Wilga and PVYNTN strains. To determine the resistance of potato cultivars commonly planted in South Africa against our local PVYN-Wilga and PVYNTN isolates, we assessed the speed of viral spread of selected isolates using the quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in mechanically infected potato plants. Tubers were assessed for necrotic symptoms. This revealed that some cultivars show higher levels of resistance to PVY infection. Future assessments of the resistance of potato cultivars planted in South Africa will be conducted using this approach. Management of PVY in South Africa will in future be based on ongoing monitoring of PVY isolate mutation and recombination through whole genome sequencing and planting of PVY-resistant cultivars. Furthermore vector control by chemical means and planting during cooler seasons when aphid pressure is lower, and elimination of infected tubers by means of the certification scheme will together be used in a strategy to reduce the effects of PVY infections.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 3) Advances in sweetpotato breeding from 1992 to 2012. Author(s): Grüneberg, W. J. Ma, D. Mwanga, R. O. M. Carey, E. E. Huamani, K. Diaz, F. Eyzaguirre, R. Guaf, E. Jusuf, M. Karuniawan, A. Tjintokohadi, K. Song, Y. S. Anil, S. R. Hossain, M. Rahaman, E. Attaluri, S. I. Somé, K. Afuape, S. O. Adofo, K. Lukonge, E. Karanja, L. Ndirigwe, J. Ssemakula, G. Agili, S. Randrianaivoarivony, J. M. Chiona, M. (et al)
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 69) Breeding sweetpotato for yield and beta-carotene content in Burkina Faso. Author(s): Somé, K. Ouedraogo, T. J. Belem, J. Asante, K. I. Vernon, G. Danquah, Y. E.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 79) Development of dual-purpose sweetpotato varieties through participatory breeding in Rwanda. Author(s): Shumbusha, D. Ndirigwe, J. Kankundiye, L. Musabyemungu, A. Mwanga, R. O. M.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 88) Development and evaluation of new sweetpotato varieties through farmer participatory breeding for high altitudes in Kenya. Author(s): Karanja, L. Malinga, J. Ndung'u, J. Gichangi, A. Lelgut, D. Kamundia, J.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 98) In vitro evaluation of orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes for drought tolerance using polyethylene glycol. Author(s): Agili, S. Aggrey, B. N. Ngamau, K. Masinde, W. P.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 110) Ex ante evaluation of improved potato varieties for sub-Saharan Africa. Author(s): Kleinwechter, U. Hareau, G. Bonierbale, M. Gastelo, M. Harahagazwe, D.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 122) Durable cisgenic resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato, and perspectives for applications in Africa. Author(s): Gheysen, G. Heremans, B. Droogenbroeck, B. van Custers, R. Vossen, J. H. Visser, R. G. F. Jacobsen, E. Hutten, R. Haverkort, A. J.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 128) Exhibition trial and farmer participatory selection of new late-blight resistant B3C1 potato genotypes for adaptation to Nigerian conditions. Author(s): Amadi, C. O. Lang, A. J. Dung, E. A. Lenka, D. M. Dalyop, T. Y. Landeo, J. A.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 134) Integrative breeding strategy for making climate-smart potato varieties for sub-Saharan Africa. Author(s): Asfaw, A. Bonierbale, M. Khan, M. A.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 143) New elite potato clones with heat tolerance, late blight and virus resistance to address climate change. Author(s): Gastelo, M. Diaz, L. Landeo, J. A. Bonierbale, M.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 155) Strategies to improve seed potato quality and supply in sub-Saharan Africa: experience from interventions in five countries. Author(s): Demo, P. Lemaga, B. Kakuhenzire, R. Schulz, S. Borus, D. Barker, I. Woldegiorgis, G. Parker, M. L. Schulte-Geldermann, E.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 168) Public-private partnership supporting women-driven seed potato multiplication in the Lumwana catchment area of North-Western Province of Zambia. Author(s): Chalwe, A. Bwembya, S. Kanema, H. Subakanya, D.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 176) Risk of uncontrolled importation of seed potato from Europe to East and Central Africa: what are the policy options? Author(s): Kaguongo, W. Rwomushana, I. Kashaija, I. N. Ntizo, S. Kabira, J.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 186) Quality seed potato production: experience from the highlands of Ethiopia. Author(s): Woldegiorgis, G. Hailemariam, G. Lemaga, B. Schulz, S.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 199) A possible pathway for developing formal seed potato production in sub-Saharan Africa: a case of Uganda National Seed Potato Producers' Association (UNSPPA). Author(s): Kakuhenzire, R. Tindimubona, S. Kashaija, I. N. Lemaga, B.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 207) Potato yield variation as affected by virus seed degeneration and growth conditions in Tunisia. Author(s): Khamassy, N. Riadh, I. Boukhris-Bouhachem, S.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 212) Seed potato certification in Kenya: prospects, achievements and constraints. Author(s): Kimani, E. Ngundo, G. Macharia, I.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 218) Adaptation and improvement of the seed-plot technique in smallholder potato production. Author(s): Kinyua, Z. M. Schulte-Geldermann, E. Namugga, P. Ochieng-Obura, B. Tindimubona, S. Bararyenya, A. Kashaija, I. N. Rwomushana, I. Opio, F.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 226) Integration of in vitro techniques in informal seed production systems of potato in Africa. Author(s): Kumar, V. A. Kumar, A.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 235) Comparison between fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes on in vitro growth of potato microplants and subsequent in vivo performance and minituber production. Author(s): Kwigizile, O. H. Palohuta, J. P. Kakuhenzire, R.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 242) An analysis of demand, supply and elasticities of seed potato in major producing areas in Nigeria. Author(s): Lenka, D. M. Dung, E. A. Asumugha, G.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 249) An alternative technology for pre-basic seed potato production - sand hydroponics. Author(s): Mbiri, D. Schulte-Geldermann, E. Otazu, V. Kakuhenzire, R. Demo, P. Schulz, S.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 254) Improving seed health and seed performance by positive selection in three Kenyan potato varieties. Author(s): Schulte-Geldermann, E. Gildemacher, P. R. Struik, P.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 261) Scaling up the adoption of positive selection and seed-plot techniques in seed potato systems in Uganda - UNSPPA's experience. Author(s): Tindimubona, S. Kinyua, Z. M. Opio, F. Rwomushana, I. Bararyenya, A. Nahayo, P. Kaguongo, W. Oggema, J. N. Biryomumaisho, B. Namugga, P. Kashaija, I. N.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 266) Substrate and genotype effects on growth for seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Malawi. Author(s): Zimba, S. C. Njoloma, J. P. Nyaika, J. A. Mwase, W. F. Maliro, M. F. Kwapata, M. B. Bokosi, J. M.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 274) Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in the USA and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed potato lots. Author(s): Whitworth, J. L. Nolte, P.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 289) Can small still be beautiful? Moving local sweetpotato seed systems to scale in sub-Saharan Africa. Author(s): McEwan, M. Almekinders, C. Abidin, P. E. Andrade, M. Carey, E. E. Gibson, R. W. Naico, A. Namanda, S. Schulz, S.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 311) Effect of long-term in vitro subculturing on quality degeneration of sweetpotato varieties: morpho-anatomic assessment and simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis. Author(s): Hundayehu, M. C. Toit, E. du Laurie, S. M. Steyn, M. Greyling, R. Myeza, N.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 322) Shortage of sweetpotato planting material caused by prolonged dry seasons in Africa: strategies to increase its availability in Uganda. Author(s): Namanda, S. Gibson, R. W.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 330) Evaluation and promotion of sustainable farmer seed supply systems for vegetatively propagated crops in Central and Eastern Kenya. Author(s): Gathaara, V. N. Simuyu, P. O. Kilambya, D. W. Muriuki, E. K. Thuranira, E. G. Miano, D. W.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 339) Disease management, especially viruses in potato and sweetpotato. Author(s): Valkonen, J. P. T. Kreuze, J. F. Ndunguru, J.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 350) Insect Life Cycle Modelling (ILCYM) software - a generic platform for developing insect phenology models, population analysis and risk mapping. Author(s): Tonnang, H. E. Z. Sporleder, M. Juarez, H. Carhuapoma, P. Krosc, J.
Chapter: 34 (Page no: 362) Phytophthora infestans population changes in Kenya pose challenges to existing potato blight control strategies. Author(s): Nyongesa, M. Lung'aho, C. Wasilwa, L. Mbiyu, M. Onditi, J. Otieno, S.
Chapter: 35 (Page no: 368) Root knot nematodes and soft rot Enterobacteriaceae, two emerging problems of potatoes. Author(s): Moleleki, L. N.
Chapter: 36 (Page no: 375) Can mineral oil protect seed potato against aphid transmission of Potato virus y? Author(s): Boukhris-Bouhachem, S. Sellami, M. H. Chaieb, I. Souissi, R. El-Fahem, M.
Chapter: 37 (Page no: 382) The farming systems of potential potato production areas of Chencha, southern Ethiopia. Author(s): Mazengia, W. Schulte, R. Tadese, Y. Griffin, D. Schulz, S. Struik, P. C.
Chapter: 38 (Page no: 396) Aphids infesting potato in Kenya. Author(s): Were, H. K. Olubayo, F. M. Kabira, J. Aura, J. Torrance, L.
Chapter: 39 (Page no: 405) Maize-orange-fleshed sweetpotato intercropping: potential for use to enhance food security and scaling-up the nutrition effort in Malawi. Author(s): Abidin, P. E. Chipungu, F. Nyekanyeka, T. Chilanga, T. Mwenye, O. Kazembe, J. Botha, B. Carey, E. E.
Chapter: 40 (Page no: 414) Effects of staking on flower induction, pollination and cross-compatibility among sweetpotato. Author(s): Afolabi, M. S. Akoroda, M. O.
Chapter: 41 (Page no: 421) Sweetpotato and garden egg intercrop compatibility studies in Umudike, Nigeria. Author(s): Ebeniro, C. N. Udealor, A. Ano, A. O. Amadi, C. O.
Chapter: 42 (Page no: 426) Nutrient uptake and yield efficiency of exotic sweetpotato cultivars under an organic soil management system in Abeokuta, southwestern Nigeria. Author(s): Lawal, O. I. Atayese, M. O. Oyekanmi, A. A. Afuwape, S. O. Sakariyawo, O. S. Olaiya, A. O. Idowu, O. T. H. Aiyelaagbe, I. O. O.
Chapter: 43 (Page no: 435) On the road to potato processing in African tropical highlands. Author(s): Haverkort, A. J. Woldegiorgis, G. Koesveld, M. J. van Ntizo, S. Wustman, R. Zhang, X.
Chapter: 44 (Page no: 453) Unlocking the potential of the potato subsector in Kenya - a roadmap for revitalizing the subsector. Author(s): Lung'aho, C. Kipkoech, D. Ng'ang'a, N. Kaguongo, W. Nyongesa, M. Schulte-Geldermann, E.
Chapter: 45 (Page no: 462) Potential of processing potato flakes from popular Kenyan potato varieties. Author(s): Abong', G. O. Kabira, J. Okoth, M. W. Ogolla, J. A. Ouma, J.
Chapter: 46 (Page no: 470) Assessing potato production efficiency through contract farming in Kenya: the case of Bomet and Molo farmers. Author(s): Kipkoech, D. Borus, D. Lemaga, B. Kering, J. Muriithi, G. Ng'ang'a, N. Kabira, J.
Chapter: 47 (Page no: 478) Improvement of processing technology research and utilization of sweetpotato and its derived foods in China and Rwanda. Author(s): Sindi, K. Xie, J. Xie, K. Zhu, Y.
Chapter: 48 (Page no: 491) Building a sustainable sweetpotato value chain: experience from the Rwanda sweetpotato super foods project. Author(s): Ndirigwe, J. Sindi, K. Low, J. Shumbusha, D. Shingiro, J. B. Nshimiyimana, J. C. Hakizimana, S. Angsten, A.
Chapter: 49 (Page no: 498) Sweetpotato value chain development in West Africa: matching products with farmer typology. Author(s): Peters, D.
Chapter: 50 (Page no: 508) Vacuum-frying processing technology improves quality attributes of fried sweetpotato chips. Author(s): Sobukola, O. P. Esan, T. A. Bakare, H. A. Sanni, L. O.
Chapter: 51 (Page no: 517) Price integration of sweetpotato marketing: implications for an efficient marketing system in Nigeria. Author(s): Anyaegbunam, H. N. Nwosu, A. C. Mbanasor, J. A.
Chapter: 52 (Page no: 524) Transaction costs and agricultural household supply: response of sweetpotato farmers in Kwara State of Nigeria. Author(s): Farayola, C. O. Nwachukwu, S. C. Alao, B. I.
Chapter: 53 (Page no: 533) Promotion of vitamin A-enriched sweetpotato for production by small-scale commercial farmers in South Africa. Author(s): Laurie, S. M. Mtileni, M. M. Mphela, W. M. Berg, A. A. van den Ramathavhana, T. Sediane, L. Maraganedzha, T. Plooy, C. P. du
Chapter: 54 (Page no: 541) Getting the equation right: engendering sweetpotato value chains in East Africa. Author(s): Mayanja, S. McEwan, M.
Chapter: 55 (Page no: 551) Assessing nutritional value and changing behaviours regarding orange-fleshed sweetpotato use in sub-Saharan Africa. Author(s): Low, J. Ball, A. Jaarsveld, P. J. van Namutebi, A. Faber, M. Grant, F. K.
Chapter: 56 (Page no: 580) Effect of sweetpotato meal and composite sweetpotato-meal-based diets on performance of weaner rabbits. Author(s): Ekwe, C. C. Obi, J. I. Ekwe, K. C.
Chapter: 57 (Page no: 586) Determining availability of nutrients in sweetpotato grown in the Kenyan highlands using in sacco degradability and in vitro digestability. Author(s): Kinyua, J. Musalia, L. Migwi, P. Gachurii, C. Lukuyu, B. Agili, S. Muriithi, G.
Chapter: 58 (Page no: 592) Sweetpotato-based formulation: an alternative food blend for complementary feeding. Author(s): Amagloh, F. K. Coad, J.
Chapter: 59 (Page no: 602) Evaluation of sensory quality characteristics of muffins developed from sweetpotato flours. Author(s): Williams, M. S. E. Sawi, M. K. Anthony, N. M. Sowe, S.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Department of Biochemistry, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7602 Matieland, South Africa.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2015
  • ISBN
  • 9781780644202
  • Record Number
  • 20153367585