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CABI Book Chapter

Livestock production and climate change.

Book cover for Livestock production and climate change.

Description

This 395-paged-book aims to raise awareness among scientists, academics, students, livestock farmers and policy makers of the twin inter-related and inter-dependent complex mechanisms of livestock rearing and climate change. The contents are divided into sections: one on livestock production, one on climate change and one on enteric methane amelioration. In the first section, decisive issues such ...

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Chapter 8 (Page no: 111)

Perspective on livestock-generated GHGs and climate.

The greenhouse gases (GHGs) attributed to agriculture and animal agriculture are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The relative absorptivity of the infrared radiation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is about 21-fold and 310-fold higher than for each molecule of CH4 or N2O, respectively. As the absorptivity in both gases is not saturated like CO2, the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the greenhouse effect have therefore been prospectively increasing linearly, because atmospheric increases in the concentration of both gases correlate closely with human activities, and the world population is currently expanding to more than 7 billion. Rumen CH4 production emitted to the atmosphere can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. The abatement mechanism of rumen CH4 emission may be divided into direct and indirect suppression of methanogens in the rumen. The most significant strategy to mitigate rumen CH4 emission in an indirect manner is to promote alternative metabolic pathways to dispose of the reducing power, competing with methanogenesis for H2 uptake. In an attempt to identify natural manipulators with the efficacy to mitigate rumen CH4 emission, efficient prebiotics and probiotics have been developed in various institutions instead of ionophores in respect to food safety. The relatively lower molecular weight compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum have recently revealed the ability to suppress rumen methanogenesis. Some tropical and subtropical legume trees fed to cattle and buffalo as a protein source, due to their high protein content, are rich in secondary metabolites such as saponin and tannin, which is a type of polyphenol, etc. Some of them have been reported to abate rumen CH4 production remarkably well in vitro or in vivo. In some cases, however, experimental results are in agreement but may not match. Meta-analysis might be useful to integrate statistically the experimental results from independent studies for comprehensive understanding in the next stage of research. Although the inventory assessment of N2O is still ongoing, animal manures, including those from monogastrics, have been listed as a significant contributor. The incomprehensible fates of organic and inorganic nitrogen compounds contained in the aerobic composting of animal manures may confuse an accurate evaluation of the actual emission of N2O from animal manures. Of late, there has been an urgent need for renewable energy production using anaerobic digesters to capture biogas (CH4) from animal effluent. Most manure nitrogen during fermentation has been converted to an inorganic form in the digested slurry.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Overview. Author(s): Prasad, C. S. Malik, P. K. Bhatta, R.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 8) Feed resources vis-à-vis livestock and fish productivity in a changing climate. Author(s): Blümmel, M. Haileslassie, A. Herrero, M. Beveridge, M. Phillips, M. Havlik, P.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) Strategies for alleviating abiotic stress in livestock. Author(s): Sejian, V. Iqbal Hyder Malik, P. K. Soren, N. M. Mech, A. Mishra, A. Ravindra, J. P.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 61) Nitrogen emissions from animal agricultural systems and strategies to protect the environment. Author(s): Kohn, R. A.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 74) Nutritional strategies for minimizing phosphorus pollution from the livestock industry. Author(s): Ray, P. P. Knowlton, K. F.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 90) Metagenomic approaches in harnessing gut microbial diversity. Author(s): Thulasi, A. Lyju Jose Chandrasekharaiah, M. Rajendran, D. Prasad, C. S.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 100) Proteomics in studying the molecular mechanism of fibre degradation. Author(s): Singh, N. K.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 125) Carbon footprints of food of animal origin. Author(s): Flachowsky, G.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 146) Carbon sequestration and animal-agriculture: relevance and strategies to cope with climate change. Author(s): Devendra, C.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 162) Climate change: impacts on livestock diversity in tropical countries. Author(s): Banik, S. Pankaj, P. K. Naskar, S.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 183) Climate change: effects on animal reproduction. Author(s): Jyotirmoy Ghosh Dhara, S. K. Malik, P. K.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 202) Climate change: impact of meat production. Author(s): Musalia, L. M.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 214) Indigenous livestock resources in a changing climate: Indian perspective. Author(s): Ahlawat, S. P. S. Pushpendra Kumar Kush Shrivastava Sahoo, N. R.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 229) Enteric methane emission: status, mitigation and future challenges - an Indian perspective. Author(s): Raghavendra Bhatta Malik, P. K. Prasad, C. S.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 245) Thermodynamic and kinetic control of methane emissions from ruminants. Author(s): Kohn, R. A.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 263) Ionophores: a tool for improving ruminant production and reducing environmental impact. Author(s): Bell, N. Wickersham, T. Sharma, V. Callaway, T.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 273) Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation. Author(s): Berry, D. P. Lassen, J. Haas, Y. de
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 292) Acetogenesis as an alternative to methanogenesis in the rumen. Author(s): Gagen, E. J. Denman, S. E. McSweeney, C. S.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 304) Immunization and tannins in livestock enteric methane amelioration. Author(s): Uyeno, Y.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 318) Phage therapy in livestock methane amelioration. Author(s): Gilbert, R. A. Ouwerkerk, D. Klieve, A. V.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 336) Feed-based approaches in enteric methane amelioration. Author(s): Malik, P. K. Bhatta, R. Soren, N. M. Sejian, V. Mech, A. Prasad, K. S. Prasad, C. S.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 360) Methanotrophs in enteric methane mitigation. Author(s): Soren, N. M. Malik, P. K. Sejian, V.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 376) Summary. Author(s): Malik, P. K. Bhatta, R. Saravanan, M. Baruah, L.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Graduate School of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2015
  • ISBN
  • 9781780644325
  • Record Number
  • 20153123676