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Giardia and Cryptosporidium: from molecules to disease.

Book cover for <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Giardia</i> and <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Cryptosporidium</i>: from molecules to disease.

Description

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are both parasites of considerable global interest due to the gastrointestinal problems the organisms can cause in humans as well as domestic and wild animals. This book presents an overview of recent research. The chapters discuss topics from taxonomy; nomenclature and evolution to molecular epidemiology; advances in diagnostics; and zoonotic, and human and animal heal...

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Chapter 35 (Page no: 428)

Pathogenic mechanisms in giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis.

This chapter elaborates on pathogenic processes responsible for the production of symptoms during giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis. To date, research findings indicate that both infections share a number of these processes. Infection appears to cause diarrhoea via a combination of intestinal malabsorption and hypersecretion. Malabsorption and maldigestion mainly result from a loss of total epithelial brush border surface area, and diffuse microvillous shortening is mediated by activated host T lymphocytes. This activation is secondary to Giardia- and Cryptosporidium-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions, which in turn increases intestinal permeability. Both parasites may breach the epithelial barrier by inducing enterocyte apoptosis. These effects may facilitate the development of other enteric disorders in infected patients, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and allergies, via mechanisms that remain obscure. The regulatory processes of epithelial apoptosis are also discussed, including the role of parasite products as well as host factors. In this context, recent observations indicate that host epithelial nitric oxide responses, as well as a newly discovered glucose-mediated cytoprotective mechanism, may represent effective modulators of the epithelial apoptosis induced by these parasites. This review of the various pathogenic mechanisms of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis sheds light on potential therapeutic targets that may help control the disease associated with these infections as well as a variety of other enteric disorders.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) The impact of Giardia on science and society. Author(s): Thompson, R. C. A.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 12) Cryptosporidium in cattle: from observing to understanding. Author(s): Fayer, R. Santín, M. Trout, J. M.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) Names do matter. Author(s): Bowman, D. D.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 31) Centenary of the genus Cryptosporidium: from morphological to molecular species identification. Author(s): Šlapeta, J.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 51) Molecular epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in developing countries. Author(s): Xiao, L.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 65) Molecular epidemiology and typing of non-human isolates of Cryptosporidium. Author(s): Ryan, U. M. Xiao, L.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 81) Insights into the molecular detection of Giardia duodenalis: implications for epidemiology. Author(s): Cacciò, S. M. Lalle, M. Beck, R. Pozio, E.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 94) Wildlife with Giardia: villain, or victim and vector? Author(s): Kutz, S. J. Thompson, R. C. A. Polley, L.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 107) The role of livestock in the foodborne transmission of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. to humans. Author(s): Dixon, B. R.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 123) The risk of zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. in watersheds. Author(s): Mohammed, H. O. Wade, S. E.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 131) Clinical presentation in Cryptosporidium-infected patients. Author(s): Kortbeek, L. M.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 138) Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections. Author(s): Hunter, P. R.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 147) Advances in diagnosis: is microscopy still the benchmark? Author(s): Chalmers, R. M.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 158) Control of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water by disinfection. Author(s): Hargy, T. M. Clancy, J. L. Landry, L. P.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 179) Towards methods for detecting UV-induced damage in individual Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts by immunofluorescence microscopy. Author(s): Smith, H. V. Al-Adhami, B. H. Nichols, R. A. B. Kusel, J. R. O'Grady, J.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 198) Effect of environmental and conventional water treatment processes on waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts. Author(s): King, B. Keegan, A. Saint, C. Monis, P.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 210) Methods for genotyping and subgenotyping Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts isolated during water and food monitoring. Author(s): Smith, H. V. Nichols, R. A. B. Connelly, L. Sullivan, C. B.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 227) Intervention in waterborne disease. Author(s): Nichols, G. Lake, I. R. Chalmers, R. M. Bentham, G. Harrison, F. C. D. Hunter, P. R. Kovats, S. Grundy, C. Anthony, S. Lyons, H. Agnew, M. Proctor, C.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 238) Occurrence and control of Naegleria fowleri in drinking water wells. Author(s): Gerba, C. P. Blair, B. L. Sarkar, P. Bright, K. R. MacLean, R. C. Marciano-Cabral, F.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 248) Environmental factors influencing the survival of Cyclospora cayetanensis. Author(s): Ortega, Y. R.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 255) Recent advances in the developmental biology and life cycle of Cryptosporidium. Author(s): Hijjawi, N. S. Boxell, A. C. Thompson, R. C. A.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 266) Basic biology of Giardia lamblia: further studies on median body and funis. Author(s): Benchimol, M.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 284) Giardia intestinalis: a microaerophilic parasite with mitochondrial ancestry. Author(s): León-Avila, G. Hernández, J. M. Tovar, J.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 292) Cytoskeleton-based lipid transport in a parasitic protozoan, Giardia lamblia. Author(s): Castillo, C. Hernandez, Y. Roychowdhury, S. Das, S.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 309) Signalling during Giardia differentiation. Author(s): Lauwaet, T. Gillin, F. D.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 320) Preliminary analysis of the Cryptosporidium muris genome. Author(s): Widmer, G. London, E. Zhang, L. Ge, G. Tzipori, S. Carlton, J. M. Silva, J. C. da
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 328) Proteomic analyses in Giardia. Author(s): Palm, D. Svärd, S. G.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 344) Proteomic and genomic approaches to understanding the 'power plant' of Cryptosporidium. Author(s): Putignani, L. Sanderson, S. J. Russo, C. Kissinger, J. Menichella, D. Wastling, J. M.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 360) Energy metabolism and carbon flow in Cryptosporidium parvum. Author(s): Zhu, G.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 369) The surface protein repertoires of Cryptosporidium spp. and other apicomplexans. Author(s): Templeton, T. J.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 382) Giardan: structure, synthesis, regulation and inhibition. Author(s): Scedilla˜ener, K. Keulen, H. van Jarroll, E. L.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 398) Protein kinase C in Giardia duodenalis: a family affair. Author(s): Bazán-Tejeda, M. L. Argüello-García, R. Bermúdez-Cruz, R. M. Robles-Flores, M. Ortega-Pierres, G.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 409) Secretory granule biogenesis and the organization of membrane compartments via SNARE proteins in Giardia lamblia. Author(s): Elías, E. V. Gottig, N. Quiroga, R. Luján, H. D.
Chapter: 34 (Page no: 418) Molecular mechanisms of Cryptosporidium-induced host actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Author(s): O'Hara, S. P. Chen, X. M. LaRusso, N. F.
Chapter: 36 (Page no: 442) Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in immunological control of cryptosporidial infection. Author(s): Choudhry, N. Bajaj-Elliott, M. McDonald, V.
Chapter: 37 (Page no: 451) Immune response to Giardia infection: lessons from animal models. Author(s): Singer, S. M. Kamda, J.
Chapter: 38 (Page no: 463) Drug treatment and novel drug targets against Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Author(s): Rossignol, J. F.

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