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CABI Book Chapter

Giardia and Cryptosporidium: from molecules to disease.

Book cover for <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Giardia</i> and <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Cryptosporidium</i>: from molecules to disease.

Description

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are both parasites of considerable global interest due to the gastrointestinal problems the organisms can cause in humans as well as domestic and wild animals. This book presents an overview of recent research. The chapters discuss topics from taxonomy; nomenclature and evolution to molecular epidemiology; advances in diagnostics; and zoonotic, and human and animal heal...

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Chapter 7 (Page no: 81)

Insights into the molecular detection of Giardia duodenalis: implications for epidemiology.

Giardia duodenalis is a widespread parasite of mammalian species, including humans. Due to its invariant morphology, investigation of aspects such as host specificity and transmission patterns requires a direct genetic characterization of cysts/trophozoites from host samples. A number of molecular assays have been developed to help in unravelling the complex epidemiology of this infection. Recently, however, molecular approaches have been complicated by the recognition of intra-isolate sequence heterogeneity (i.e. 'mixed templates'), which affects subtype identification and the assignment of isolates to specific G. duodenalis assemblages. This raises concerns about the previous interpretation of genotyping data, and indicates the need to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for these unexpected findings. In this chapter, we critically review those different mechanisms and discuss some possible experimental strategies that can be used in future studies.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) The impact of Giardia on science and society. Author(s): Thompson, R. C. A.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 12) Cryptosporidium in cattle: from observing to understanding. Author(s): Fayer, R. Santín, M. Trout, J. M.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) Names do matter. Author(s): Bowman, D. D.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 31) Centenary of the genus Cryptosporidium: from morphological to molecular species identification. Author(s): Šlapeta, J.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 51) Molecular epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in developing countries. Author(s): Xiao, L.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 65) Molecular epidemiology and typing of non-human isolates of Cryptosporidium. Author(s): Ryan, U. M. Xiao, L.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 94) Wildlife with Giardia: villain, or victim and vector? Author(s): Kutz, S. J. Thompson, R. C. A. Polley, L.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 107) The role of livestock in the foodborne transmission of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. to humans. Author(s): Dixon, B. R.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 123) The risk of zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. in watersheds. Author(s): Mohammed, H. O. Wade, S. E.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 131) Clinical presentation in Cryptosporidium-infected patients. Author(s): Kortbeek, L. M.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 138) Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections. Author(s): Hunter, P. R.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 147) Advances in diagnosis: is microscopy still the benchmark? Author(s): Chalmers, R. M.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 158) Control of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water by disinfection. Author(s): Hargy, T. M. Clancy, J. L. Landry, L. P.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 179) Towards methods for detecting UV-induced damage in individual Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts by immunofluorescence microscopy. Author(s): Smith, H. V. Al-Adhami, B. H. Nichols, R. A. B. Kusel, J. R. O'Grady, J.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 198) Effect of environmental and conventional water treatment processes on waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts. Author(s): King, B. Keegan, A. Saint, C. Monis, P.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 210) Methods for genotyping and subgenotyping Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts isolated during water and food monitoring. Author(s): Smith, H. V. Nichols, R. A. B. Connelly, L. Sullivan, C. B.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 227) Intervention in waterborne disease. Author(s): Nichols, G. Lake, I. R. Chalmers, R. M. Bentham, G. Harrison, F. C. D. Hunter, P. R. Kovats, S. Grundy, C. Anthony, S. Lyons, H. Agnew, M. Proctor, C.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 238) Occurrence and control of Naegleria fowleri in drinking water wells. Author(s): Gerba, C. P. Blair, B. L. Sarkar, P. Bright, K. R. MacLean, R. C. Marciano-Cabral, F.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 248) Environmental factors influencing the survival of Cyclospora cayetanensis. Author(s): Ortega, Y. R.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 255) Recent advances in the developmental biology and life cycle of Cryptosporidium. Author(s): Hijjawi, N. S. Boxell, A. C. Thompson, R. C. A.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 266) Basic biology of Giardia lamblia: further studies on median body and funis. Author(s): Benchimol, M.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 284) Giardia intestinalis: a microaerophilic parasite with mitochondrial ancestry. Author(s): León-Avila, G. Hernández, J. M. Tovar, J.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 292) Cytoskeleton-based lipid transport in a parasitic protozoan, Giardia lamblia. Author(s): Castillo, C. Hernandez, Y. Roychowdhury, S. Das, S.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 309) Signalling during Giardia differentiation. Author(s): Lauwaet, T. Gillin, F. D.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 320) Preliminary analysis of the Cryptosporidium muris genome. Author(s): Widmer, G. London, E. Zhang, L. Ge, G. Tzipori, S. Carlton, J. M. Silva, J. C. da
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 328) Proteomic analyses in Giardia. Author(s): Palm, D. Svärd, S. G.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 344) Proteomic and genomic approaches to understanding the 'power plant' of Cryptosporidium. Author(s): Putignani, L. Sanderson, S. J. Russo, C. Kissinger, J. Menichella, D. Wastling, J. M.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 360) Energy metabolism and carbon flow in Cryptosporidium parvum. Author(s): Zhu, G.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 369) The surface protein repertoires of Cryptosporidium spp. and other apicomplexans. Author(s): Templeton, T. J.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 382) Giardan: structure, synthesis, regulation and inhibition. Author(s): Scedilla˜ener, K. Keulen, H. van Jarroll, E. L.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 398) Protein kinase C in Giardia duodenalis: a family affair. Author(s): Bazán-Tejeda, M. L. Argüello-García, R. Bermúdez-Cruz, R. M. Robles-Flores, M. Ortega-Pierres, G.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 409) Secretory granule biogenesis and the organization of membrane compartments via SNARE proteins in Giardia lamblia. Author(s): Elías, E. V. Gottig, N. Quiroga, R. Luján, H. D.
Chapter: 34 (Page no: 418) Molecular mechanisms of Cryptosporidium-induced host actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Author(s): O'Hara, S. P. Chen, X. M. LaRusso, N. F.
Chapter: 35 (Page no: 428) Pathogenic mechanisms in giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis. Author(s): Buret, A. G.
Chapter: 36 (Page no: 442) Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in immunological control of cryptosporidial infection. Author(s): Choudhry, N. Bajaj-Elliott, M. McDonald, V.
Chapter: 37 (Page no: 451) Immune response to Giardia infection: lessons from animal models. Author(s): Singer, S. M. Kamda, J.
Chapter: 38 (Page no: 463) Drug treatment and novel drug targets against Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Author(s): Rossignol, J. F.