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Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. La Grande Motte, France, 22-27 April 2007.

Book cover for Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. La Grande Motte, France, 22-27 April 2007.


These proceedings contain the full-length papers and abstracts of papers presented at the symposium. Subjects covered include: ecology and modelling in biological control of weeds; benefits, risks and cost analysis of biological weed control; target and biological control agent selection; pre-release specificity and efficacy testing; regulations and public awareness; evolutionary processes; opport...


Chapter 39 (Page no: 455)

Opportunities and constraints for the biological control of weeds in Europe.

Although there has been increasing interest in Europe over the last few decades in trying to harness the potential of biological control as a management tool for weeds, securing funding for projects continues to be problematic whilst the successes have been limited. The incentives to use alternative technology are based on a number of interrelated factors, not least the dramatic rise in popularity of organic products (linked to increasing environmental awareness) and a powerful anti-GMO lobby. Combine this with new legislation to remove some chemical herbicides from the market or to restrict their usage, as well as soaring development costs for new products, and the opportunities for biological control have never been better. Here, we analyse the reasons for the limited uptake, and the challenges or constraints facing weed biocontrol from two different approaches: classical and inundative. For classical biological control against invasive alien weeds, Europe has lagged behind other continents (e.g. Australasia, North America) to the point that there have been no introductions thus far, whilst those that are in the pipeline still need to clear considerable legislative hurdles. These issues are highlighted for past and ongoing projects. For inundative biological control against indigenous or naturalized weeds - in this case, the use of products based on plant pathogens (bioherbicides) - the constraints are largely technological and commercial rather than bureaucratic: e.g. stability and efficacy; costs of production and registration; and limited markets. Opportunities to support the study and use of mycoherbicides, and strategies to overcome these constraints - improving production, formulation and application systems; genetic enhancement; synergistic mixtures of agents/metabolites - are discussed.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 3) Is modelling population dynamics useful for anything other than keeping a researcher busy? Author(s): Buckley, Y. M.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 7) Biomass reduction of Euphorbia esula/virgata by insect/bacterial combinations. Author(s): Caesar, A. J. Kremer, R. J.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 13) Rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with insect root herbivory of an invasive plant, Euphorbia esula/virgata. Author(s): Caesar, A. J. Caesar-Ton That, T.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 20) The endophyte-enemy release hypothesis: implications for classical biological control and plant invasions. Author(s): Evans, H. C.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 26) Multiple-species introductions of biological control agents against weeds: look before you leap. Author(s): Impson, F. A. C. Moran, V. C. Kleinjan, C. Hoffmann, J. H. Moore, J. A.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 32) Clipping the butterfly bush's wings: defoliation studies to assess the likely impact of a folivorous weevil. Author(s): Kriticos, D. J. Watt, M. S. Whitehead, D. Gous, S. F. Potter, K. J. Richardson, B.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 37) Can a pathogen provide insurance against host shifts by a biological control organism? Author(s): McEvoy, P. B. Karacetin, E. Bruck, D. J.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 43) Which haystack? Climate matching to narrow the search for weed biological control agents. Author(s): Robertson, M. P. Zachariades, C. Kriticos, D. J.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 44) Nutritional characteristics of Hydrilla verticillata and its effect on two biological control agents. Author(s): Shearer, J. F. Grodowitz, M. J. Freedman, J. E.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 52) How sensitive is weed invasion to seed predation? Author(s): Klinken, R. D. van Colasanti, R. Buckley, Y. M.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 67) Return on investment: determining the economic impact of biological control programmes. Author(s): McFadyen, R.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 75) Post-release non-target monitoring of Mogulones cruciger, a biological control agent released to control Cynoglossum officinale in Canada. Author(s): Andreas, J. E. Schwarzländer, M. Ding, H. Eigenbrode, S. D.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 83) Assessing indirect impacts of biological control agents on native biodiversity: a community-level approach. Author(s): Carvalheiro, L. G. Buckley, Y. M. Ventim, R. Memmott, J.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 87) Factors affecting oviposition rate in the weevil Rhinocyllus conicus on non-target Carduus spp. in New Zealand. Author(s): Groenteman, R. Kelly, D. Fowler, S. V. Bourdôt, G. W.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 91) Fortieth anniversary review of the CSIRO European Laboratory: does native range research provide good return on investment? Author(s): Sheppard, A. W. Briese, D. T. Cullen, J. M. Groves, R. H. Julien, M. H. Lonsdale, W. M. Scott, J. K. Wapshere, A. J.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 109) Latin American weed biological control science at the crossroads. Author(s): Barreto, R. W.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 122) Galling guilds associated with Acacia dealbata and factors guiding selection of potential biological control agents. Author(s): Adair, R. J.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 129) Biological control of Miconia calvescens with a suite of insect herbivores from Costa Rica and Brazil. Author(s): Badenes-Perez, F. R. Alfaro-Alpizar, M. A. Castillo-Castillo, A. Johnson, M. T.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 133) Giving dyer's woad the blues: encouraging first results for biological control. Author(s): Cortat, G. Hinz, H. L. Gerber, E. Cristofaro, M. Tronci, C. Korotyaev, B. A. Gültekin, L.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 138) Herbivores associated with Arundo donax in California. Author(s): Dudley, T. L. Lambert, A. M. Kirk, A. Tamagawa, Y.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 145) Which species of the thistle biocontrol agent Trichosirocalus are present in New Zealand? Author(s): Groenteman, R. Kelly, D. Fowler, S. V. Bourdôt, G. W.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 150) Bionomics and seasonal occurrence of Larinus filiformis Petri, 1907 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in eastern Turkey, a potential biological control agent for Centaurea solstitialis L. Author(s): Gültekİn, L. Cristofaro, M. Tronci, C. Smith, L.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 154) All against one: first results of a newly formed foreign exploration consortium for the biological control of perennial pepperweed. Author(s): Hinz, H. L. Gerber, E. Cristofaro, M. Tronci, C. Seier, M. Korotyaev, B. A. Gültekİn, L. Williams, L. Schwarzländer, M.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 160) Potential biological control agents for fumitory (Fumaria spp.) in Australia. Author(s): Jourdan, M. Vitou, J. Thomann, T. Maxwell, A. Scott, J. K.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 165) Expanding classical biological control of weeds with pathogens in India: the way forward. Author(s): Kumar, P. S. Rabindra, R. J. Ellison, C. A.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 173) Explorations in Central Asia and Mediterranean basin to select biological control agents for Salsola tragus. Author(s): Lecce, F. Paolini, A. Tronci, C. Gültekİn, L. Cristina, F. di Korotyaev, B. A. Colonnelli, E. Cristofaro, M. Smith, L.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 178) Eriophyoid mites on Centaurea solstitialis in the Mediterranean area. Author(s): Monfreda, R. Lillo, E. de Cristofaro, M.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 182) Diclidophlebia smithi (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) a potential biological agent for Miconia calvescens. Author(s): Morais, E. G. F. Picanço, M. C. Barreto, R. W. Silva, G. A. Campos, M. R. Queiroz, R. B.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 189) A lace bug as biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae): an unusual choice. Author(s): Paolini, A. Tronci, C. Lecce, F. Hayat, R. Cristina, F. di Cristofaro, M. Smith, L.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 195) Pathogens from Brazil for classical biocontrol of Tradescantia fluminensis. Author(s): Pereira, O. L. Barreto, R. W. Waipara, N.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 200) Field and laboratory observations of the life history of the Swiss biotype of Longitarsus jacobaeae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Author(s): Puliafico, K. P. Littlefield, J. L. Markin, G. P. Schaffner, U.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 206) Fungal survey for biocontrol agents of Ipomoea carnea from Brazil. Author(s): Soares, D. J. Barreto, R. W.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 211) Biological control of lippia (Phyla canescens): surveys for the plant and its natural enemies in Argentina. Author(s): Sosa, A. J. Traversa, M. G. Delhey, R. Kiehr, M. Cardo, M. V. Julien, M. H.
Chapter: 34 (Page no: 216) Potential biological control agents of field bindweed, common teasel and field dodder from Slovakia. Author(s): Tóth, P. Tóthova, M. Cagáň, L.
Chapter: 35 (Page no: 221) Lewia chlamidosporiformans, a mycoherbicide for control of Euphorbia heterophylla: isolate selection and mass production. Author(s): Vieira, B. S. Nechet, K. L. Barreto, R. W.
Chapter: 36 (Page no: 227) Sphenoptera foveola (Buprestidae) as a potential agent for biological control of skeletonweed, Chondrilla juncea. Author(s): Volkovitsh, M. G. Dolgovskaya, M. Yu Reznik, S. Ya Markin, G. P. Cristofaro, M. Tronci, C.
Chapter: 37 (Page no: 232) Common buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica L.: available feeding niches and the importance of controlling this invasive woody perennial in North America. Author(s): Yoder, M. V. Skinner, L. C. Ragsdale, D. W.
Chapter: 38 (Page no: 238) Evaluation of Fusarium as potential biological control against Orobanche on Faba bean in Tunisia. Author(s): Boutiti, M. Z. Souissi, T. Kharrat, M.
Chapter: 40 (Page no: 463) Could Fallopia japonica be the first target for classical weed biocontrol in Europe? Author(s): Djeddour, D. H. Shaw, R. H. Evans, H. C. Tanner, R. A. Kurose, D. Takahashi, N. Seier, M.
Chapter: 41 (Page no: 470) Biological control of Rumex species in Europe: opportunities and constraints. Author(s): Hatcher, P. E. Brandsaeter, L. O. Davies, G. Lüscher, A. Hinz, H. L. Eschen, R. Schaffner, U.
Chapter: 42 (Page no: 476) Opportunities for classical biological control of weeds in European overseas territories. Author(s): Bourgeois, T. le Blanfort, V. Baret, S. Lavergne, C. Soubeyran, Y. Meyer, J. Y.
Chapter: 43 (Page no: 484) Weed biological control regulation in Europe: boring but important. Author(s): Shaw, R. H.
Chapter: 44 (Page no: 495) Release strategies in weed biocontrol: how well are we doing and is there room for improvement? Author(s): Fowler, S. V. Harman, H. M. Memmott, J. Peterson, P. G. Smith, L.
Chapter: 45 (Page no: 503) Feeding impacts of a leafy spurge biological control agent on a native plant, Euphorbia robusta. Author(s): Baker, J. L. Webber, N. A. P.
Chapter: 46 (Page no: 507) Variation in the efficacy of a mycoherbicide and two synthetic herbicide alternatives. Author(s): Bourdôt, G. W. Hurrell, G. A. Saville, D. J.
Chapter: 47 (Page no: 512) Ten years after the release of the water hyacinth mirid Eccritotarsus catarinensis in South Africa: what have we learnt? Author(s): Coetzee, J. A. Hill, M. P. Byrne, M. J.
Chapter: 48 (Page no: 516) Release and establishment of the Scotch broom seed beetle, Bruchidius villosus, in Oregon and Washington, USA. Author(s): Coombs, E. M. Markin, G. P. Andreas, J.
Chapter: 49 (Page no: 521) Biological control of Mediterranean sage (Salvia aethiopis) in Oregon. Author(s): Coombs, E. M. Miller, J. C. Andres, L. A. Turner, C. E.
Chapter: 50 (Page no: 528) Preliminary results of a survey on the role of arthropod rearing in classical weed biological control. Author(s): Clerck-Floate, R. de Hinz, H. L. Heard, T. Julien, M. Wardill, T. Cook, C.
Chapter: 51 (Page no: 535) Beginning success of biological control of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the southwestern USA. Author(s): DeLoach, C. J. Moran, P. J. Knutson, A. E. Thompson, D. C. Carruthers, R. I. Michels, J. Herr, J. C. Muegge, M. Eberts, D. Randal, C. Everitt, J. O'Meara, S. Sanabria, J.
Chapter: 52 (Page no: 540) Monitoring the rust fungus, Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis, for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). Author(s): Fisher, A. J. Woods, D. M. Smith, L. Bruckart, W. L.
Chapter: 53 (Page no: 545) Is ragwort flea beetle (Longitarsus jacobeae) performance reduced by high rainfall on the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand? Author(s): Gourlay, A. H. Fowler, S. V. Rattray, G.
Chapter: 54 (Page no: 552) Host-range investigations of potential biological control agents of alien invasive hawkweeds (Hieracium spp.) in the USA and Canada: an overview. Author(s): Grosskopf, G. Wilson, L. M. Littlefield, J. L.
Chapter: 55 (Page no: 558) Azolla filiculoides Lamarck (Pteridophyta: Azollaceae) control in South Africa: a 10-year review. Author(s): Hill, M. P. McConnachie, A. J. Byrne, M. J.
Chapter: 56 (Page no: 561) Species pairs for the biological control of weeds: advantageous or unnecessary? Author(s): Jackson, C. A. R. Myers, J. H.
Chapter: 57 (Page no: 568) Field studies of the biology of the moth Bradyrrhoa gilveolella (Treitschke) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as a potential biocontrol agent for Chondrilla juncea. Author(s): Kashefi, J. Markin, G. P. Littlefield, J. L.
Chapter: 58 (Page no: 573) The release and establishment of the tansy ragwort flea beetle in the northern Rocky Mountains of Montana. Author(s): Littlefield, J. L. Markin, G. P. Puliafico, K. P. Meij, A. E. de
Chapter: 59 (Page no: 577) Factors affecting mass production of Duosporium yamadanum in rice grains. Author(s): Macedo, D. M. Barreto, R. W. Pomella, A. W. V.
Chapter: 60 (Page no: 583) Biological control of tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaeae, L.) by the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (CL) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), in the northern Rocky Mountains. Author(s): Markin, G. P. Littlefield, J. L.
Chapter: 61 (Page no: 589) Establishment, spread and initial impacts of Gratiana boliviana (Chrysomelidae) on Solanum viarum in Florida. Author(s): Medal, J. Overholt, W. A. Stansly, P. Roda, A. Osborne, L. Hibbard, K. Gaskalla, R. Burns, E. Chong, J. Sellers, B. Hight, S. D. Cuda, J. P. Vitorino, M. Bredow, E. Pedrosa-Macedo, J. H. Wikler, C.
Chapter: 62 (Page no: 594) Dissemination and impacts of the fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. miconiae, on the invasive alien tree, Miconia calvescens, in Tahiti (South Pacific). Author(s): Meyer, J. Y. Taputuarai, R. Killgore, E.
Chapter: 63 (Page no: 601) One agent is usually sufficient for successful biological control of weeds. Author(s): Myers, J. H.
Chapter: 64 (Page no: 607) Evaluating implementation success for seven seed head insects on Centaurea solstitialis in California, USA. Author(s): Pitcairn, M. J. Villegas, B. Woods, D. M. Yacoub, R. Joley, D. B.
Chapter: 65 (Page no: 614) The ragweed leaf beetle Zygogramma suturalis F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Russia: current distribution, abundance and implication for biological control of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Author(s): Reznik, S. Ya. Spasskaya, I. A. Dolgovskaya, M. Yu. Volkovitsh, M. G. Zaitzev, V. F.
Chapter: 66 (Page no: 620) Long-term field evaluation of Mecinus janthinus releases against Dalmatian toadflax in Montana (USA). Author(s): Sing, S. E. Weaver, D. K. Nowierski, R. M. Markin, G. P.
Chapter: 67 (Page no: 625) Post-release evaluation of invasive plant biological control agents in BC using IAPP, a novel database management platform. Author(s): Turner, S. C.
Chapter: 68 (Page no: 649) Integration of biological control into weed management strategies. Author(s): DiTomaso, J. M.
Chapter: 69 (Page no: 655) Biological control of Melaleuca quinquenervia: goal-based assessment of success. Author(s): Center, T. D. Pratt, P. D. Tipping, P. W. Rayamajhi, M. B. Wineriter, S. A. Purcell, M. F.
Chapter: 70 (Page no: 665) Hydrilla verticillata threatens South African waters. Author(s): Coetzee, J. A. Madeira, P. T.
Chapter: 71 (Page no: 669) Status of the biological control of banana poka, Passiflora mollissima (aka P. tarminiana) in Hawaii. Author(s): Friesen, R. D. Causton, C. E. Markin, G. P.
Chapter: 72 (Page no: 676) A cooperative research model - biological control of Parkinsonia aculeata and Landcare groups in northern Australia. Author(s): Galea, V. J.
Chapter: 73 (Page no: 680) A global view of the future for biological control of gorse, Ulex europaeus L. Author(s): Hill, R. L. Ireson, J. Sheppard, A. W. Gourlay, A. H. Norambuena, H. Markin, G. P. Kwong, R. Coombs, E. M.
Chapter: 74 (Page no: 687) Assigning success in biological weed control: what do we really mean? Author(s): Hoffmann, J. H. Moran, V. C.
Chapter: 75 (Page no: 693) Combination of a mycoherbicide with selected chemical herbicides for control of Euphorbia heterophylla. Author(s): Nechet, K. L. Vieira, B. S. Barreto, R. W. Mizubuti, E. S. G. Silva, A. A.
Chapter: 76 (Page no: 699) Sustainable management based on biological control and ecological restoration of an alien invasive weed, Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) in China. Author(s): Zhang, F. Liu, W. X. Wan, F. H. Ellison, C. A.