Cookies on CAB eBooks

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.


Continuing to use  means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

CAB eBooks

Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International

CABI Book Chapter

Quality control and production of biological control agents: theory and testing procedures.

Book cover for Quality control and production of biological control agents: theory and testing procedures.


This book contains 20 chapters, divided into 6 sections. The first section discusses the development of quality control for natural enemies. The second section consists of chapters dealing with background information on sources of variation in foraging behaviour that are regularly encountered, but not understood and often misinterpreted in mass rearing. The third section focuses on how to cope wit...


Chapter 19 (Page no: 265)

Guidelines for quality control of commercially produced natural enemies.

Lack of quality control procedures during the mass production of natural enemies may lead to failures in biological pest control. An example is presented of deteriorating efficiency of a natural enemy before quality control was applied and the measures that were taken to restore quality. Although some producers of beneficial insects and mites have applied quality control in one form or another for more than 30 years, it was only during the past 10 years that collaboration between researchers and the biocontrol industry resulted in the development of the 30 harmonized quality control guidelines that are presented in this chapter. Most guidelines have been ring-tested by commercial producers; some are still in development. For each natural enemy the test conditions and the quality control criteria are given. Finally, future developments in quality control are discussed, such as the need to develop flight and performance tests, and the wish of farmers to obtain a set of simple tests for quality control of natural enemies once they have arrived at the farm.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Need for quality control of massproduced biological control agents. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 19) Aspects of total quality control for the production of natural enemies. Author(s): Leppla, N. C.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) A variable-response model for parasitoid foraging behaviour. Author(s): Vet, L. E. M. Lewis, W. J. Papaj, D. R. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 41) Variations in natural-enemy foraging behaviour: essential element of a sound biological control theory. Author(s): Lewis, W. J. Vet, L. E. M. Tumlinson, J. H. Lenteren, J. C. van Papaj, D. R.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 59) The parasitoids' need for sweets: sugars in mass rearing and biological control. Author(s): Wäckers, F. L.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 73) Managing captive populations for release: a population-genetic perspective. Author(s): Nunney, L.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 89) Adaptive recovery after fitness reduction: the role of population size. Author(s): Hoekstra, R. F.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 93) The use of unisexual wasps in biological control. Author(s): Stouthamer, R.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 115) Comparison of artificially vs. Naturally reared natural enemies and their potential for use in biological control. Author(s): Grenier, S. Clercq, P. de
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 133) Pathogens of mass-produced natural enemies and pollinators. Author(s): Bjørnson, S. Schütte, C.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 167) Commercial availability of biological control agents. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 181) Mass production, storage, shipment and release of natural enemies. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Tommasini, M. G.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 191) Regulation of import and release of mass-produced natural enemies: a risk-assessment approach. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Babendreier, D. Bigler, F. Burgio, G. Hokkanen, H. M. T. Kuske, S. Loomans, A. J. M. Menzler-Hokkanen, I. Rijn, P. C. J. van Thomas, M. B. Tommasini, M. G.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 205) Quality assurance in North America: merging customer and producer needs. Author(s): Glenister, C. S. Hale, A. Luczynski, A.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 215) State of affairs and future directions of product quality assurance in Europe. Author(s): Bolckmans, K. J. F.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 225) The relationship between results from laboratory product-control tests and large-cage tests where dispersal of natural enemies is possible: a case-study with Phytoseiulus persimilis. Author(s): Steinberg, S. Cain, H.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 231) Quality of augmentative biological control agents: a historical perspective and lessons learned from evaluating Trichogramma. Author(s): Luck, R. F. Forster, L. D.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 247) Towards the standardization of quality control of fungal and viral biological control agents. Author(s): Jenkins, N. E. Grzywacz, D.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 305) Basic statistical methods for quality control workers. Author(s): Wajnberg, E.