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Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International

CABI Book Chapter

Quality control and production of biological control agents: theory and testing procedures.

Book cover for Quality control and production of biological control agents: theory and testing procedures.


This book contains 20 chapters, divided into 6 sections. The first section discusses the development of quality control for natural enemies. The second section consists of chapters dealing with background information on sources of variation in foraging behaviour that are regularly encountered, but not understood and often misinterpreted in mass rearing. The third section focuses on how to cope wit...


Chapter 15 (Page no: 215)

State of affairs and future directions of product quality assurance in Europe.

Beneficial arthropods will only become a mainstream pest-management tool when good-quality organisms are constantly available and when sufficient knowledge and technical support are provided for farmers for the proper use of these natural enemies. These requirements demand great challenges from the producers of natural enemies in all phases of production and transport of biocontrol agents. In this chapter, the history of quality control of biocontrol agents in Europe is sketched and the future of guideline development is discussed. Furthermore, it is argued that the biocontrol industry should move from quality control to quality assurance, because quality assurance looks at product quality from a proactive viewpoint, while quality control is a retrospective activity that focuses only on the quality of a product at the end of the production chain. Aspects of quality assurance during production and transport are described. Finally, the issue of certification of product quality is discussed.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Need for quality control of massproduced biological control agents. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 19) Aspects of total quality control for the production of natural enemies. Author(s): Leppla, N. C.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) A variable-response model for parasitoid foraging behaviour. Author(s): Vet, L. E. M. Lewis, W. J. Papaj, D. R. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 41) Variations in natural-enemy foraging behaviour: essential element of a sound biological control theory. Author(s): Lewis, W. J. Vet, L. E. M. Tumlinson, J. H. Lenteren, J. C. van Papaj, D. R.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 59) The parasitoids' need for sweets: sugars in mass rearing and biological control. Author(s): Wäckers, F. L.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 73) Managing captive populations for release: a population-genetic perspective. Author(s): Nunney, L.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 89) Adaptive recovery after fitness reduction: the role of population size. Author(s): Hoekstra, R. F.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 93) The use of unisexual wasps in biological control. Author(s): Stouthamer, R.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 115) Comparison of artificially vs. Naturally reared natural enemies and their potential for use in biological control. Author(s): Grenier, S. Clercq, P. de
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 133) Pathogens of mass-produced natural enemies and pollinators. Author(s): Bjørnson, S. Schütte, C.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 167) Commercial availability of biological control agents. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 181) Mass production, storage, shipment and release of natural enemies. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Tommasini, M. G.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 191) Regulation of import and release of mass-produced natural enemies: a risk-assessment approach. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Babendreier, D. Bigler, F. Burgio, G. Hokkanen, H. M. T. Kuske, S. Loomans, A. J. M. Menzler-Hokkanen, I. Rijn, P. C. J. van Thomas, M. B. Tommasini, M. G.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 205) Quality assurance in North America: merging customer and producer needs. Author(s): Glenister, C. S. Hale, A. Luczynski, A.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 225) The relationship between results from laboratory product-control tests and large-cage tests where dispersal of natural enemies is possible: a case-study with Phytoseiulus persimilis. Author(s): Steinberg, S. Cain, H.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 231) Quality of augmentative biological control agents: a historical perspective and lessons learned from evaluating Trichogramma. Author(s): Luck, R. F. Forster, L. D.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 247) Towards the standardization of quality control of fungal and viral biological control agents. Author(s): Jenkins, N. E. Grzywacz, D.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 265) Guidelines for quality control of commercially produced natural enemies. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Hale, A. Klapwijk, J. N. Schelt, J. van Steinberg, S.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 305) Basic statistical methods for quality control workers. Author(s): Wajnberg, E.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Koppert Biological Systems, PO Box 155, 2650 AD Berkel and Rodenrijs, Netherlands.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2003
  • ISBN
  • 0851996884
  • Record Number
  • 20083015264