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Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International

CABI Book Chapter

Quality control and production of biological control agents: theory and testing procedures.

Book cover for Quality control and production of biological control agents: theory and testing procedures.


This book contains 20 chapters, divided into 6 sections. The first section discusses the development of quality control for natural enemies. The second section consists of chapters dealing with background information on sources of variation in foraging behaviour that are regularly encountered, but not understood and often misinterpreted in mass rearing. The third section focuses on how to cope wit...


Chapter 12 (Page no: 181)

Mass production, storage, shipment and release of natural enemies.

Mass production of natural enemies started in the 1940s and quickly developed thereafter. These developments were mainly triggered by trying to economize rearing and making biological control more competitive when compared with other pest-control methods. Storage of natural enemies is only possible for very short periods, with the exception of species for which it is known how to start and terminate diapause. Initially, the collection, shipment and release of biological control agents were rather amateurish, but enormous progress has also been made in this area. Many natural-enemy species can now be produced at competitive costs, resulting in increased use of biological pest control.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Need for quality control of massproduced biological control agents. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 19) Aspects of total quality control for the production of natural enemies. Author(s): Leppla, N. C.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) A variable-response model for parasitoid foraging behaviour. Author(s): Vet, L. E. M. Lewis, W. J. Papaj, D. R. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 41) Variations in natural-enemy foraging behaviour: essential element of a sound biological control theory. Author(s): Lewis, W. J. Vet, L. E. M. Tumlinson, J. H. Lenteren, J. C. van Papaj, D. R.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 59) The parasitoids' need for sweets: sugars in mass rearing and biological control. Author(s): Wäckers, F. L.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 73) Managing captive populations for release: a population-genetic perspective. Author(s): Nunney, L.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 89) Adaptive recovery after fitness reduction: the role of population size. Author(s): Hoekstra, R. F.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 93) The use of unisexual wasps in biological control. Author(s): Stouthamer, R.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 115) Comparison of artificially vs. Naturally reared natural enemies and their potential for use in biological control. Author(s): Grenier, S. Clercq, P. de
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 133) Pathogens of mass-produced natural enemies and pollinators. Author(s): Bjørnson, S. Schütte, C.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 167) Commercial availability of biological control agents. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 191) Regulation of import and release of mass-produced natural enemies: a risk-assessment approach. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Babendreier, D. Bigler, F. Burgio, G. Hokkanen, H. M. T. Kuske, S. Loomans, A. J. M. Menzler-Hokkanen, I. Rijn, P. C. J. van Thomas, M. B. Tommasini, M. G.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 205) Quality assurance in North America: merging customer and producer needs. Author(s): Glenister, C. S. Hale, A. Luczynski, A.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 215) State of affairs and future directions of product quality assurance in Europe. Author(s): Bolckmans, K. J. F.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 225) The relationship between results from laboratory product-control tests and large-cage tests where dispersal of natural enemies is possible: a case-study with Phytoseiulus persimilis. Author(s): Steinberg, S. Cain, H.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 231) Quality of augmentative biological control agents: a historical perspective and lessons learned from evaluating Trichogramma. Author(s): Luck, R. F. Forster, L. D.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 247) Towards the standardization of quality control of fungal and viral biological control agents. Author(s): Jenkins, N. E. Grzywacz, D.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 265) Guidelines for quality control of commercially produced natural enemies. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Hale, A. Klapwijk, J. N. Schelt, J. van Steinberg, S.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 305) Basic statistical methods for quality control workers. Author(s): Wajnberg, E.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, PO Box 8031, 6700 EH Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2003
  • ISBN
  • 0851996884
  • Record Number
  • 20083015261