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Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International

CABI Book Chapter

Quality control and production of biological control agents: theory and testing procedures.

Book cover for Quality control and production of biological control agents: theory and testing procedures.


This book contains 20 chapters, divided into 6 sections. The first section discusses the development of quality control for natural enemies. The second section consists of chapters dealing with background information on sources of variation in foraging behaviour that are regularly encountered, but not understood and often misinterpreted in mass rearing. The third section focuses on how to cope wit...


Chapter 10 (Page no: 133)

Pathogens of mass-produced natural enemies and pollinators.

Pathogens are found in both field-collected and mass-reared natural enemies. This raises concern regarding their quality and efficacy in biological pest-control programmes. Some pathogens affect the performance of natural enemies and crop pollinators by lowering their efficacy, whereas others alter their reproduction. It is therefore important to screen individuals for pathogens on a routine and continual basis. Special attention should be given to field-collected arthropods and those exchanged among rearing facilities. In order to obtain high efficacy in pest control, the release of pathogen-free natural enemies in biological control programmes is of the utmost importance. This chapter first provides an overview of the types of pathogens to which beneficial arthropods are susceptible and describes the symptoms that may be associated with infection. Next, diseases of natural enemies and insect pollinators are presented according to host genus.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Need for quality control of massproduced biological control agents. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 19) Aspects of total quality control for the production of natural enemies. Author(s): Leppla, N. C.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) A variable-response model for parasitoid foraging behaviour. Author(s): Vet, L. E. M. Lewis, W. J. Papaj, D. R. Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 41) Variations in natural-enemy foraging behaviour: essential element of a sound biological control theory. Author(s): Lewis, W. J. Vet, L. E. M. Tumlinson, J. H. Lenteren, J. C. van Papaj, D. R.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 59) The parasitoids' need for sweets: sugars in mass rearing and biological control. Author(s): Wäckers, F. L.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 73) Managing captive populations for release: a population-genetic perspective. Author(s): Nunney, L.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 89) Adaptive recovery after fitness reduction: the role of population size. Author(s): Hoekstra, R. F.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 93) The use of unisexual wasps in biological control. Author(s): Stouthamer, R.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 115) Comparison of artificially vs. Naturally reared natural enemies and their potential for use in biological control. Author(s): Grenier, S. Clercq, P. de
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 167) Commercial availability of biological control agents. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 181) Mass production, storage, shipment and release of natural enemies. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Tommasini, M. G.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 191) Regulation of import and release of mass-produced natural enemies: a risk-assessment approach. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Babendreier, D. Bigler, F. Burgio, G. Hokkanen, H. M. T. Kuske, S. Loomans, A. J. M. Menzler-Hokkanen, I. Rijn, P. C. J. van Thomas, M. B. Tommasini, M. G.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 205) Quality assurance in North America: merging customer and producer needs. Author(s): Glenister, C. S. Hale, A. Luczynski, A.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 215) State of affairs and future directions of product quality assurance in Europe. Author(s): Bolckmans, K. J. F.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 225) The relationship between results from laboratory product-control tests and large-cage tests where dispersal of natural enemies is possible: a case-study with Phytoseiulus persimilis. Author(s): Steinberg, S. Cain, H.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 231) Quality of augmentative biological control agents: a historical perspective and lessons learned from evaluating Trichogramma. Author(s): Luck, R. F. Forster, L. D.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 247) Towards the standardization of quality control of fungal and viral biological control agents. Author(s): Jenkins, N. E. Grzywacz, D.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 265) Guidelines for quality control of commercially produced natural enemies. Author(s): Lenteren, J. C. van Hale, A. Klapwijk, J. N. Schelt, J. van Steinberg, S.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 305) Basic statistical methods for quality control workers. Author(s): Wajnberg, E.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Department of Biology, Saint Mary's University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3C3, Canada.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2003
  • ISBN
  • 0851996884
  • Record Number
  • 20083015259