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CABI Book Chapter

Avian gut function in health and disease.

Book cover for Avian gut function in health and disease.

Description

This book contains conference proceedings of the 28th Poultry Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association held in Bristol, UK, in September 2005. It focuses on the discontinued use of antibiotics in poultry and on the interactions between the birds, dietary factors and pathogens. The 23 chapters include the history, current use and legislative aspects of feed additives in the Euro...

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Chapter 3 (Page no: 29)

Early development of small intestinal function.

To accommodate the rapid transition to external nutrient sources, the chicken small intestine goes through morphological, cellular and molecular changes towards the end of incubation. The weight of the intestine, as a proportion of embryonic weight, increases from approximately 1% at 17 days of incubation (17E) to 3.5% at hatch. At this time, the embryonic small intestinal villi are divided into two main developmental stages, which differ in both length and shape. Mucin-producing cells can be observed from 17E and at that time contain only acidic mucin. The activity and RNA expression of brush-border enzymes, which digest disaccharides and small peptides, and of major transporters (sodium-glucose transporter and ATPase) which are found at 15E, begin to increase at 19E (2 days prior to hatch), and increase further on the day of hatch. Although the digestive capacity begins to develop a few days before hatch, most of the development occurs post-hatch when the neonatal chick begins consuming feed. During the post-hatch period, the weight of the small intestine increases at a faster rate than body mass. Rapid enterocyte proliferation and differentiation occur. In addition the intestinal crypts, which begin to form at hatch, are clearly defined several days post-hatch, increasing in both cell number and size. Goblet cells produce acidic and neutral mucins in similar proportions. Studies have shown that feeding immediately post-hatch or even pre-hatch accelerates the functional development of the small intestine, while delayed access to external feed arrests the development of the small intestine's mucosal layer and changes mucin dynamics.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 3) History and current use of feed additives in the European Union: legislative and practical aspects. Author(s): Doeschate, R. A. H. M. ten Raine, H.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 13) Poultry nutrition without pronutrient antibiotics. Author(s): Rosen, G. D.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 43) Absorptive function of the small intestine: adaptations meeting demand. Author(s): Mitchell, M. A. Moretó, M.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 65) Epithelial structure and function in the hen lower intestine. Author(s): Laverty, G. Elbrønd, V. S. Árnason, S.S. Skadhauge, E.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 85) Immunological development of the avian gut. Author(s): Beal, R. K. Powers, C. Davison, T. F. Smith, A. L.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 107) Molecular approaches to the analysis of gastrointestinal microbial ecosystems. Author(s): Flint, H. J. Leitch, E. C. M. Duncan, S. H. Walker, A. W. Patterson, A. J. Rincon, M. T. Scott, K. P. Louis, P.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 124) Microbes of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Author(s): Apajalahti, J. Kettunen, A.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 138) Mechanisms of pathogen control in the avian gastrointestinal tract. Author(s): Donoghue, A. M. Farnell, M. B. Cole, K. Donoghue, D. J.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 159) Effect of non-starch polysaccharidases on avian gastrointestinal function. Author(s): Bedford, M. R.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 171) Effects of amino acid and protein supply on nutrition and health. Author(s): Kidd, M. T. Corzo, A.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 183) The role of feed processing on gastrointestinal function and health in poultry. Author(s): Svihus, B.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 195) Wet litter: its causes and prevention and the role of nutrition. Author(s): Collett, S. R.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 210) Micronutrient supply: influence on gut health and immunity. Author(s): Klasing, K. C.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 227) Virally induced gastrointestinal diseases of chickens and turkeys. Author(s): Guy, J. S.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 244) The gastrointestinal tract as a port of entry for bacterial infections in poultry. Author(s): Christensen, J. P. Chadfield, M. S. Olsen, J. E. Bisgaard, M.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 259) Parasite genetics, protection and antigen identification. Author(s): Blake, D. P. Shirley, M. W. Smith, A. L.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 275) Developments and pitfalls of feed acidification in controlling gut pathogens in poultry, with emphasis on Salmonella. Author(s): Immerseel, F. van Gantois, I. Bohez, L. Timbermont, L. Boyen, F. Hautefort, I. Hinton, J. C. D. Pasmans, F. Haesebrouck, F. Ducatelle, R.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 294) Competitive exclusion in poultry production. Author(s): Schneitz, C.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 311) Campylobacters and their bacteriophage in poultry. Author(s): Connerton, P. L. Connerton, I. F.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 322) Breeding for disease resistance. Author(s): Bishop, S. C.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 341) The EU perspective on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. Author(s): Idei, S.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 350) Gastrointestinal problems: the field experience and what it means to the poultry farmer. Author(s): Lister, S. A.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76-100, Israel.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2006
  • ISBN
  • 9781845931803
  • Record Number
  • 20073020064