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CABI Book Chapter

Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

Book cover for Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

Description

This book contains 34 chapters on nutrition physiology and presents scientific research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fishes. It is divided into 6 parts that cover fermentation, absorption and passage; growth and development; mineral metabolism; methodology and model development; environmental impacts and animal prod...

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Chapter 10 (Page no: 99)

Prediction of energy requirement for growing sheep with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System.

This study evaluates the suitability of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for sheep (CNCPS-S) to predict average daily gain (ADG) of lambs. This model was also used to compare the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy (ME) to net energy (NE) for growth (kg) from the Agricultural Research Council (ARC, 1980), the Australian system (CSIRO, 1990), the National Research Council (NRC, 2000) and a theoretical equation by Tedeschi et al. (2004), which uses a decay equation as a function of the composition of the gain. In addition, the equations used by ARC (1980), NRC (1985) and CSIRO (1990) to predict the energy content of empty body gain (EVG) were compared. Forty-two data points from nine published studies were used to investigate the adequacy of CNCPS-S and of the above equations to estimate ADG. Regardless of the kg prediction equation used, the CNCPS-S markedly underpredicted ADG, due to an overprediction of ME requirements for maintenance (MEm). When the factors causing overprediction of MEm were corrected, the CNCPS-S underpredicted ADG when the NRC (1985) and CSIRO (1990) equations were used to estimate kg, while good precision and accuracy were achieved when kg was predicted with the Tedeschi et al. (2004) and ARC (1980) equations. With the ARC (1980) equation, the CNCPS-S model explained 82% of the variation in ADG, with small mean bias (-4 g/day) and root mean squared predicted error (RMSPE) (40 g/day); the simultaneous test of the intercept and slope did not reject (P>0.1) the hypothesis that they were statistically similar from zero and unity, respectively. The model had an accuracy of 0.90 when evaluated with the concordance correlation coefficient test. The comparison of three different equations to predict EVG indicated that the best CNCPS-S prediction of ADG was obtained with the CSIRO (1990) approach. We concluded that a modified CNCPS-S model can be used to accurately predict ADG of growing lambs.

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Introduction Introduction: history, appreciation and future focus. Author(s): France, J.
Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline - development of volatile fatty acid sub-model. Author(s): Sveinbjörnsson, J. Huhtanen, P. Udén, P.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 15) A three-compartment model of transmembrane fluxes of valine across the tissues of the hindquarters of growing lambs infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Author(s): Roy, N. C. Bermingham, E. N. McNabb, W. C.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 28) Using rumen degradation model to evaluate microbial protein yield and intestinal digestion of grains in cattle. Author(s): Paengkoum, P.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 33) Simulation of rumen particle dynamics using a non-steady state model of rumen digestion and nutrient availability in dairy cows fed sugarcane. Author(s): Collao-Saenz, E. A. Bannink, A. Kebreab, E. France, J. Dijkstra, J.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 40) Modelling fluxes of volatile fatty acids from rumen to portal blood. Author(s): Nozière, P. Hoch, T.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 48) The role of rumen fill in terminating grazing bouts of dairy cows under continuous stocking. Author(s): Taweel, H. Z. Tas, B. M. Tamminga, S. Dijkstra, J.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 54) Functions for microbial growth. Author(s): López, S. Prieto, M. Dijkstra, J. Kebreab, E. Dhanoa, M. S. France, J.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 69) Obtaining information on gastric emptying patterns in horses from appearance of an oral acetaminophen dose in blood plasma. Author(s): Cant, J. P. Walsh, V. N. Geor, R. J.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 84) A model to evaluate beef cow efficiency. Author(s): Tedeschi, L. O. Fox, D. G. Baker, M. J. Long, K. L.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 114) Prediction of body weight and composition from body dimension measurements in lactating dairy cows. Author(s): Yan, T. Agnew, R. E. Mayne, C. S. Patterson, D. C.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 121) Relationships between body composition and ultrasonic measurements in lactating dairy cows. Author(s): Agnew, R. E. Yan, T. Patterson, D. C. Mayne, C. S.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 127) Empirical model of dairy cow body composition. Author(s): Martin, O. Sauvant, D.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 135) Simulating chemical and tissue composition of growing beef cattle: from the model to the tool. Author(s): Hoch, T. Pradel, P. Champciaux, P. Agabriel, J.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 144) Representation of fat and protein gain at low levels of growth and improved prediction of variable maintenance requirement in a ruminant growth and composition model. Author(s): Oltjen, J. W. Sainz, R. D. Pleasants, A. B. Soboleva, T. K. Oddy, V. H.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 160) Growth patterns of Nellore vs British beef cattle breeds assessed using a dynamic, mechanistic model of cattle growth and composition. Author(s): Sainz, R. D. Barioni, L. G. Paulino, P. V. Valadares Filho, S. C. Oltjen, J. W.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 171) A kinetic model of phosphorus metabolism in growing sheep. Author(s): Dias, R. S. Roque, A. R. Nascimento Filho, V. F. Vitti, D. M. S. S. Bueno, I. C. S.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 180) Dynamic simulation of phosphorus utilization in salmonid fish. Author(s): Hua, K. Cant, J. P. Bureau, D. P.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 192) Development of a dynamic model of calcium and phosphorus flows in layers. Author(s): Dijkstra, J. Kebreab, E. Kwakkel, R. P. France, J.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 211) Estimating the risk of hypomagnesaemic tetany in dairy herds. Author(s): Bell, S. T. McKinnon, A. E. Sykes, A. R.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 229) Modelling the effects of environmental stressors on the performance of growing pigs: from individuals to populations. Author(s): Wellock, I. J. Emmans, G. C. Kyriazakis, I.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 242) Empirical modelling through meta-analysis vs mechanistic modelling. Author(s): Sauvant, D. Martin, O.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 251) Iterative development, evaluation and optimal parameter estimation of a dynamic simulation model: a case study. Author(s): Barioni, L. G. Oltjen, J. W. Sainz, R. D.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 257) Segmented, constrained, non-linear, multi-objective, dynamic optimization methodology applied to the dairy cow ration formulation problem. Author(s): Boston, R. C. Hanigan, M. D.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 275) A model to simulate the effects of different dietary strategies on the sustainability of a dairy farm system. Author(s): Prado, A. del Scholefield, D. Brown, L.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 281) Advantages of a dynamical approach to rumen function to help to resolve environmental issues. Author(s): Bannink, A. Dijkstra, J. Kebreab, E. France, J.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 299) Evaluation of models to predict methane emissions from enteric fermentation in North American dairy cattle. Author(s): Kebreab, E. France, J. McBride, B. W. Odongo, N. Bannink, A. Mills, J. A. N. Dijkstra, J.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 314) Investigating daily changes in food intake by ruminants. Author(s): Dryden, G. M.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 328) An ingredient-based input scheme for Molly. Author(s): Hanigan, M. D. Bateman, H. G. Fadel, J. G. McNamara, J. P. Smith, N. E.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 349) Metabolic control: improvement of a dynamic model of lactational metabolism in early lactation. Author(s): McNamara, J. P.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 366) Rostock feed evaluation system - an example of the transformation of energy and nutrient utilization models to practical application. Author(s): Chudy, A.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 383) The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline - description. Author(s): Danfær, A. Huhtanen, P. Udén, P. Sveinbjörnsson, J. Volden, H.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 407) The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline - evaluation. Author(s): Danfær, A. Huhtanen, P. Udén, P. Sveinbjörnsson, J. Volden, H.
Chapter: 34 (Page no: 416) A composite model of growth, pregnancy and lactation. Author(s): Vetharaniam, I. Davis, S. R.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Dipartimento di Scienze Zootecniche, via De Nicola 9, Università di Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2006
  • ISBN
  • 9781845930059
  • Record Number
  • 20063093927