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Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

Book cover for Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

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This book contains 34 chapters on nutrition physiology and presents scientific research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fishes. It is divided into 6 parts that cover fermentation, absorption and passage; growth and development; mineral metabolism; methodology and model development; environmental impacts and animal prod...

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Chapter 8 (Page no: 69)

Obtaining information on gastric emptying patterns in horses from appearance of an oral acetaminophen dose in blood plasma.

The rate of passage of nutrients from the stomach to the small intestine is a regulated process that can influence metabolic responses to a meal. Acetaminophen has been used as an indicator of gastric emptying because of its negligible absorption in the stomach and high coefficient of absorption in the proximal small intestine. Seven horses were given an oral dose of 20 mg/kg acetaminophen simultaneously with a 5 ml/kg gastric gavage of water or a 20% glucose solution containing nothing else, tri-acetin, octanoic acid or maize oil. The five different liquid meals were administered on consecutive weeks in a randomized sequence. To identify the pattern of gastric emptying on different meals, several candidate models of gastric emptying and acetaminophen kinetics were evaluated from least squared fits to the 35 sets of acetaminophen concentrations in serial blood samples collected from a jugular catheter. In all models, absorption was assumed to be nil from the stomach and instantaneous from the small intestine. Elimination from the circulation followed first-order kinetics. Assuming continuous, zero-order outflow of acetaminophen from the stomach yielded R2 for fits to the plasma appearance curves that ranged from 0.18 to 0.97 and AIC from 69 to 109. The average±standard deviation (SD) gastric emptying rate was 231±176 mg/min from a dose of 8412±819 mg. Assuming first-order kinetics of acetaminophen outflow relative to gastric contents did not improve the goodness-of-fit. The average±SD emptying rate constant was 0.046±0.042/min. An oscillation in residuals over time from both models was hypothesized to be due to the initial dose intermittently flowing out of the stomach. Two parameters (w and p) were added to the zero-order and first-order emptying models to simulate periodic gushing of gastric contents for w min every p min, where w < p. From the zero-order model, the duration of each gush (w) was estimated to be 52 min, on average, and the period between gushes (p) was 192 min. Representing intermittency of gastric outflow as a sequence of identically spaced pulses resulted, on average, in an 80% increase in the estimate of the rate constant for acetaminophen clearance from plasma. Periodicity parameters for variably intermittent gastric emptying models were obtained from the sign of plasma acetaminophen appearance runs. The zero-order variably intermittent model performed better for meals of glucose plus octanoic acid, whereas the first-order model was superior for the other meals.

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Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2006
  • ISBN
  • 9781845930059
  • Record Number
  • 20063093925