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CABI Book Chapter

Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

Book cover for Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

Description

This book contains 34 chapters on nutrition physiology and presents scientific research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fishes. It is divided into 6 parts that cover fermentation, absorption and passage; growth and development; mineral metabolism; methodology and model development; environmental impacts and animal prod...

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Chapter 34 (Page no: 416)

A composite model of growth, pregnancy and lactation.

Mathematical models of pre- and postnatal growth, pregnancy and lactation were combined and implemented using object-orientated computer code to form an energy-based model of a dairy cow. Each simulated cow 'grows', can have a computer pregnancy with multiple offspring, growing its fetuses to term, and 'lactates' at parturition. Each fetus is implemented as a separate entity and thus, after birth, is also capable of growth, pregnancy and lactation. Every cow (and fetus) can have different genetics, allowing the evolution of a herd over time to be modelled. The model uses dynamic energy partitioning between growth, pregnancy and lactation in a manner sensitive to intake. Additionally, milk production is sensitive to milking frequency (MF), and fetal growth is sensitive to number of siblings. The model was fitted to milk yield (MY) and live weight (LW) data from 82 Holstein × Friesian cows on an individual cow basis, with up to 3 consecutive years of data for each cow. The model had R2 values of 0.57 for LW and 0.88 for MY. The parameterized model proved useful for simulating the effects of management decisions either on a single animal or at a herd level. Results are presented from previous studies, which used the model to investigate the outcomes of different MFs under different nutritional scenarios, and as part of a decision-making tool for manipulating MF and feed to optimize profit in a pasture-based system. Additionally, simulations of singleton and twin fetal growth, and the response of the mammary gland to varying demand during suckling, are presented.

Other chapters from this book

Introduction Introduction: history, appreciation and future focus. Author(s): France, J.
Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline - development of volatile fatty acid sub-model. Author(s): Sveinbjörnsson, J. Huhtanen, P. Udén, P.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 15) A three-compartment model of transmembrane fluxes of valine across the tissues of the hindquarters of growing lambs infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Author(s): Roy, N. C. Bermingham, E. N. McNabb, W. C.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 28) Using rumen degradation model to evaluate microbial protein yield and intestinal digestion of grains in cattle. Author(s): Paengkoum, P.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 33) Simulation of rumen particle dynamics using a non-steady state model of rumen digestion and nutrient availability in dairy cows fed sugarcane. Author(s): Collao-Saenz, E. A. Bannink, A. Kebreab, E. France, J. Dijkstra, J.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 40) Modelling fluxes of volatile fatty acids from rumen to portal blood. Author(s): Nozière, P. Hoch, T.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 48) The role of rumen fill in terminating grazing bouts of dairy cows under continuous stocking. Author(s): Taweel, H. Z. Tas, B. M. Tamminga, S. Dijkstra, J.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 54) Functions for microbial growth. Author(s): López, S. Prieto, M. Dijkstra, J. Kebreab, E. Dhanoa, M. S. France, J.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 69) Obtaining information on gastric emptying patterns in horses from appearance of an oral acetaminophen dose in blood plasma. Author(s): Cant, J. P. Walsh, V. N. Geor, R. J.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 84) A model to evaluate beef cow efficiency. Author(s): Tedeschi, L. O. Fox, D. G. Baker, M. J. Long, K. L.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 99) Prediction of energy requirement for growing sheep with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Author(s): Cannas, A. Tedeschi, L. O. Atzori, A. S. Fox, D. G.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 114) Prediction of body weight and composition from body dimension measurements in lactating dairy cows. Author(s): Yan, T. Agnew, R. E. Mayne, C. S. Patterson, D. C.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 121) Relationships between body composition and ultrasonic measurements in lactating dairy cows. Author(s): Agnew, R. E. Yan, T. Patterson, D. C. Mayne, C. S.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 127) Empirical model of dairy cow body composition. Author(s): Martin, O. Sauvant, D.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 135) Simulating chemical and tissue composition of growing beef cattle: from the model to the tool. Author(s): Hoch, T. Pradel, P. Champciaux, P. Agabriel, J.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 144) Representation of fat and protein gain at low levels of growth and improved prediction of variable maintenance requirement in a ruminant growth and composition model. Author(s): Oltjen, J. W. Sainz, R. D. Pleasants, A. B. Soboleva, T. K. Oddy, V. H.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 160) Growth patterns of Nellore vs British beef cattle breeds assessed using a dynamic, mechanistic model of cattle growth and composition. Author(s): Sainz, R. D. Barioni, L. G. Paulino, P. V. Valadares Filho, S. C. Oltjen, J. W.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 171) A kinetic model of phosphorus metabolism in growing sheep. Author(s): Dias, R. S. Roque, A. R. Nascimento Filho, V. F. Vitti, D. M. S. S. Bueno, I. C. S.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 180) Dynamic simulation of phosphorus utilization in salmonid fish. Author(s): Hua, K. Cant, J. P. Bureau, D. P.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 192) Development of a dynamic model of calcium and phosphorus flows in layers. Author(s): Dijkstra, J. Kebreab, E. Kwakkel, R. P. France, J.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 211) Estimating the risk of hypomagnesaemic tetany in dairy herds. Author(s): Bell, S. T. McKinnon, A. E. Sykes, A. R.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 229) Modelling the effects of environmental stressors on the performance of growing pigs: from individuals to populations. Author(s): Wellock, I. J. Emmans, G. C. Kyriazakis, I.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 242) Empirical modelling through meta-analysis vs mechanistic modelling. Author(s): Sauvant, D. Martin, O.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 251) Iterative development, evaluation and optimal parameter estimation of a dynamic simulation model: a case study. Author(s): Barioni, L. G. Oltjen, J. W. Sainz, R. D.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 257) Segmented, constrained, non-linear, multi-objective, dynamic optimization methodology applied to the dairy cow ration formulation problem. Author(s): Boston, R. C. Hanigan, M. D.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 275) A model to simulate the effects of different dietary strategies on the sustainability of a dairy farm system. Author(s): Prado, A. del Scholefield, D. Brown, L.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 281) Advantages of a dynamical approach to rumen function to help to resolve environmental issues. Author(s): Bannink, A. Dijkstra, J. Kebreab, E. France, J.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 299) Evaluation of models to predict methane emissions from enteric fermentation in North American dairy cattle. Author(s): Kebreab, E. France, J. McBride, B. W. Odongo, N. Bannink, A. Mills, J. A. N. Dijkstra, J.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 314) Investigating daily changes in food intake by ruminants. Author(s): Dryden, G. M.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 328) An ingredient-based input scheme for Molly. Author(s): Hanigan, M. D. Bateman, H. G. Fadel, J. G. McNamara, J. P. Smith, N. E.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 349) Metabolic control: improvement of a dynamic model of lactational metabolism in early lactation. Author(s): McNamara, J. P.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 366) Rostock feed evaluation system - an example of the transformation of energy and nutrient utilization models to practical application. Author(s): Chudy, A.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 383) The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline - description. Author(s): Danfær, A. Huhtanen, P. Udén, P. Sveinbjörnsson, J. Volden, H.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 407) The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline - evaluation. Author(s): Danfær, A. Huhtanen, P. Udén, P. Sveinbjörnsson, J. Volden, H.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • AgResearch Limited, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2006
  • ISBN
  • 9781845930059
  • Record Number
  • 20063093922