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Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

Book cover for Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

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This book contains 34 chapters on nutrition physiology and presents scientific research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fishes. It is divided into 6 parts that cover fermentation, absorption and passage; growth and development; mineral metabolism; methodology and model development; environmental impacts and animal prod...

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Chapter 31 (Page no: 366)

Rostock feed evaluation system - an example of the transformation of energy and nutrient utilization models to practical application.

The history of energetic feed evaluation is an excellent example of the transfer of models of scientific knowledge to practical application. In developmental steps spanning over 50 years the Rostock team investigated the energy metabolism and utilization of nutrients for fat synthesis (net energy fat (NEF)) in cattle, sheep, pigs, rabbits and poultry. The experiments, including 'pure nutrients' and different groups of feedstuffs and substrates, evaluated the relation between intake of a wide range of digestible nutrients and measured energy retention (ER) and maintenance energy requirement using a multiple regression model. A study based on a mathematical-biochemical model of intermediary nutrient utilization found that the relative utilization of the nutrients, protein and carbohydrates, for fat synthesis and for (non-thermic) maintenance and work (adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis) are similar; verified the higher efficiency (22%) of utilization of dietary fat for fat synthesis compared with oxidation for maintenance (ATP synthesis) as a result of the direct incorporation of fatty acids into body fat; developed a model of whole intermediary metabolism (ATP concept), which demonstrates that: (i) except for chemical heat regulation, all energy metabolic processes consume or produce ATP-bound energy; (ii) energy metabolism (heat production (HP)) is determined both quantitatively and qualitatively only by the efficiency with which substrates are used for ATP synthesis; (iii) the gain or secretion of body nutrients is only a storage or exchange of ATP potentials, misleadingly expressed in gross energy; and (iv) the incorporation of fatty acids and amino acids is seen only as a transfer of substrates and of their ATP potential with consumption of ATP-bound energy and not as the result of metabolic substrate synthesis. Therefore it follows for practical application that the basis for energetic feed efficiency has to be the potential in catabolic processes but not in anabolic processes. The ATP-related NE is to be used as the scale to characterize the energetic potential of nutrients and feedstuffs in the ATP pool, available for all performances (activities). The use of the ATP pool is mostly determined by animal factors (physiological state), which consequently must be defined by standards for nutritional requirements. As a final conclusion, the new revised Rostock Feed Evaluation System decided on 'net energy retention (NER)' as the measure of the relative utilization of the metabolizable energy (ME) of digestible nutrients for ATP synthesis (catabolic processes), derived from measurements of fat synthesis and, based on metabolism modelling, with the reduction of fat utilization to 92% of the utilization of carbohydrates. Consequently the equations for estimation of energetic values of feedstuffs and rations for cattle (c), pigs (p) and poultry (fowl; f) for practical use are: NERc=(7.2 dCP+20 dCF+10.1 dst+8.3 dSu+8.2 dNFR) *; (-0.5574+0.0405 DE-0.0002633 DE2); NERp=11.0dCP+27dCF+12.7dSt+11.6dSu+[12-0.14(80-DE)dNFR]; NERf=10.8 dCP+29 dCF+13.5 dSt+12.4 dSu+10.5 dNFR; where d=digestible, C=crude, P=protein, F=fat, St=starch, Su=sugar, NFR=nitrogen-free residue (fibre), DE=energy digestibility.

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Chapter: 14 (Page no: 135) Simulating chemical and tissue composition of growing beef cattle: from the model to the tool. Author(s): Hoch, T. Pradel, P. Champciaux, P. Agabriel, J.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 144) Representation of fat and protein gain at low levels of growth and improved prediction of variable maintenance requirement in a ruminant growth and composition model. Author(s): Oltjen, J. W. Sainz, R. D. Pleasants, A. B. Soboleva, T. K. Oddy, V. H.
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Chapter: 19 (Page no: 192) Development of a dynamic model of calcium and phosphorus flows in layers. Author(s): Dijkstra, J. Kebreab, E. Kwakkel, R. P. France, J.
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Chapter: 26 (Page no: 281) Advantages of a dynamical approach to rumen function to help to resolve environmental issues. Author(s): Bannink, A. Dijkstra, J. Kebreab, E. France, J.
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Chapter: 29 (Page no: 328) An ingredient-based input scheme for Molly. Author(s): Hanigan, M. D. Bateman, H. G. Fadel, J. G. McNamara, J. P. Smith, N. E.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 349) Metabolic control: improvement of a dynamic model of lactational metabolism in early lactation. Author(s): McNamara, J. P.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 383) The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline - description. Author(s): Danfær, A. Huhtanen, P. Udén, P. Sveinbjörnsson, J. Volden, H.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 407) The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline - evaluation. Author(s): Danfær, A. Huhtanen, P. Udén, P. Sveinbjörnsson, J. Volden, H.
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Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Forschungsinstitut für die Biologie landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere, Dummerstorf, OT Warsow 11, D-17154 Neukalen, Germany.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2006
  • ISBN
  • 9781845930059
  • Record Number
  • 20063093918