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Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

Book cover for Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches.

Description

This book contains 34 chapters on nutrition physiology and presents scientific research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fishes. It is divided into 6 parts that cover fermentation, absorption and passage; growth and development; mineral metabolism; methodology and model development; environmental impacts and animal prod...

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Chapter 2 (Page no: 15)

A three-compartment model of transmembrane fluxes of valine across the tissues of the hindquarters of growing lambs infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

This review outlines the assumptions of a three-compartment model that describes amino acid (AA) kinetics in the tissues of the hindlimb or hindquarters. As well as determining the appearance and disappearance of AAs, this model predicts the transport of AAs into and out of the intracellular pool of this tissue bed. This model was used by Roy et al. to estimate the transmembrane kinetics of valine across the total hindquarter tissues of lambs with an established Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection. Briefly, six lambs were infected with T. colubriformis (6000/day for 6 days) while six lambs were kept as parasite-free controls (day 1 of infection). All lambs were offered Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium) at 800 g DM/day. On day 48 post infection, the lambs received a continuous infusion of [3,4-3H]-valine (5.8 MBq/h) into the jugular vein and indocyanin green (ICG; 14.6 mg/h) into the abdominal aorta for 8 h to measure total hindquarter blood flow. Blood was continually harvested every 2 h during the infusion period from the vena cava and mesenteric artery in order to determine the isotopic activity of valine, concentration of valine and ICG in plasma. The lambs were euthanized whilst these infusions were still running and a tissue sample was collected from a hindquarter muscle (biceps femoris) to determine the isotopic activity of valine in the muscle intracellular pool. Transmembrane valine kinetics in the tissues of the hindquarters were calculated using both a two- and three-compartment model. Intestinal worm burdens on day 48 post infection were significantly higher (P<0.10) in the infected lambs. Valine inflow to (Fao) and outflow from (Fov) the intracellular free AA pool in the tissues of the hindquarters were similar between treatments, and consequently net balance (NB) of valine was not altered. Bypass of valine flow (Fva) from arterial to venous blood was unaffected (P>0.10) by infection. However, valine transport kinetics (Fta and Fvt) were reduced 48 days after parasitic infection. Estimates of valine used for protein synthesis and oxidation (Fot; P=0.10) and released from protein degradation (Fto; P=0.18) were also lower in the infected lambs. These reductions could be responsible for the relative preservation of the skeletal muscle protein mass that seems to be apparent at day 48 post infection. The three-compartment model of AA kinetics in the tissues of the hindquarters appears to provide more precise information on the effect of the parasitic infection on its AA metabolism and protein turnover, compared to that obtained with the two-compartment model.

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Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Metabolism and Microbial Genomics, Food and Health Group, AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North, 5301, New Zealand.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2006
  • ISBN
  • 9781845930059
  • Record Number
  • 20063093900