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CABI Book Chapter

Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: confronting the livelihood and environmental realities.

Book cover for Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: confronting the livelihood and environmental realities.

Description

This book contains 16 chapters aiming to better understand urban waste water use in agriculture in developing countries (Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia), and detailed case study documentation of what works and what does not. It makes pragmatic recommendations aimed at protecting both the public health and farmers' income. This volume will be of significant interest to those workin...

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Chapter 6 (Page no: 69)

Wastewater irrigation - hazard or lifeline? Empirical results from Nairobi, Kenya and Kumasi, Ghana.

The range of factors that determine the quality of wastewater used by different irrigators is described, drawing on case studies from Nairobi, Kenya and Kumasi, Ghana. Not all urban irrigation relies on raw wastewater and it is misleading to consider wastewater as a uniform commodity. Dilution and natural remediation mean that irrigators use a range of water qualities and the authors raise the question of when a dilute wastewater stream is no longer classed as wastewater. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the design of wastewater treatment plants are widely used as standards to judge the quality of untreated irrigation water. However, because of the gap between standards that lead to 'no measurable excess risk of infection' and the actual situation pertaining in many cities, urban planners either condemn all urban irrigators as posing a major health risk to the community, or turn a blind eye. The authors argue that a standard leading to 'no measurable excess risk' to health is an unattainable and unhelpful medium-term goal under the conditions of indirect wastewater use seen in many cities. Instead, there is a need for explicit debate of the levels of risk that may be acceptable to individuals and communities, and the costs and benefits that they bring with them. Informed debate, that is enabled to assess the risks associated with different water qualities and irrigation practice, may lead to the development of local water quality norms and wastewater management that account for the physical and social environments in which wastewater irrigation is actually practised.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: management challenges in developing countries. Author(s): Scott, C. A. Faruqui, N. I. Raschid-Sally, L.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 11) A framework for a global assessment of the extent of wastewater irrigation: the need for a common wastewater typology. Author(s): Hoek, W. van der
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) A sustainable livelihoods approach for action research on wastewater use in agriculture. Author(s): Buechler, S. J.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 41) Health guidelines for the use of wastewater in agriculture: developing realistic guidelines. Author(s): Carr, R. M. Blumenthal, U. J. Mara, D. D.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 59) A fresh look at microbial guidelines for wastewater irrigation in agriculture: a risk-assessment and cost-effectiveness approach. Author(s): Fattal, B. Lampert, Y. Shuval, H.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 81) National assessments on wastewater use in agriculture and an emerging typology: the Vietnam case study. Author(s): Raschid-Sally, L. Doan Doan Tuan Sarath Abayawardana
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 91) Wastewater use in Pakistan: the cases of Haroonabad and Faisalabad. Author(s): Ensink, J. H. J. Simmons, R. W. Hoek, W. van der
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 101) Agricultural use of untreated urban wastewater in Ghana. Author(s): Keraita, B. N. Drechsel, P.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 113) Untreated wastewater use in market gardens: a case study of Dakar, Senegal. Author(s): Faruqui, N. I. Niang, S. Redwood, M.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 127) Wastewater irrigation in Vadodara, Gujarat, India: economic catalyst for marginalised communities. Author(s): Vaibhav Bhamoriya
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 135) The use of wastewater in Cochabamba, Bolivia: a degrading environment. Author(s): Huibers, F. P. Moscoso, O. DurĂ¡n, A. Lier, J. B. van
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 145) Treatment plant effects on wastewater irrigation benefits: revisiting a case study in the Guanajuato River basin, Mexico. Author(s): Silva-Ochoa, P. Scott, C. A.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 153) From wastewater reuse to water reclamation: progression of water reuse standards in Jordan. Author(s): McCornick, P. G. Amal Hijazi Sheikh, B.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 163) Treated wastewater use in Tunisia: lessons learned and the road ahead. Author(s): Shetty, S.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 173) Confronting the realities of wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: lessons learned and recommendations. Author(s): Faruqui, N. I. Scott, C. A. Raschid-Sally, L.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • International Development Group, HR Wallingford Limited, Howbery Park, Wallingford, OX10 8BA, UK.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2004
  • ISBN
  • 9780851998237
  • Record Number
  • 20043115035