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CABI Book Chapter

Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: confronting the livelihood and environmental realities.

Book cover for Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: confronting the livelihood and environmental realities.

Description

This book contains 16 chapters aiming to better understand urban waste water use in agriculture in developing countries (Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia), and detailed case study documentation of what works and what does not. It makes pragmatic recommendations aimed at protecting both the public health and farmers' income. This volume will be of significant interest to those workin...

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Chapter 4 (Page no: 41)

Health guidelines for the use of wastewater in agriculture: developing realistic guidelines.

The use of wastewater in agriculture - often untreated or inadequately treated - is occurring more frequently because of water scarcity and population growth. Often the poorest households rely on this resource for their livelihood and food security needs. However, there are negative health implications of this practice that need to be addressed. In 1989 the World Health Organization (WHO) developed guidelines for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, which are currently being revised based on new data from epidemiological studies, quantitative microbial risk assessments and other relevant information. The revisions being developed are in accordance with the Stockholm Framework that provides a tool for managing health risks from all water-related microbial exposures. The Stockholm Framework encourages a flexible approach to setting guidelines, allowing countries to adapt the guidelines to their own social, cultural, economic, and environmental circumstances. It is important to recognise that in many situations where wastewater is used in agriculture, the effective treatment of such wastewater may not be available for many years. WHO guidelines must therefore be practical and offer feasible risk-management solutions that will minimise health threats and allow for the beneficial use of scarce resources. To achieve the greatest impact on health, guidelines should be implemented with such other health promoting measures as: health education, hygiene promotion, provision of adequate drinking water and sanitation, etc.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: management challenges in developing countries. Author(s): Scott, C. A. Faruqui, N. I. Raschid-Sally, L.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 11) A framework for a global assessment of the extent of wastewater irrigation: the need for a common wastewater typology. Author(s): Hoek, W. van der
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) A sustainable livelihoods approach for action research on wastewater use in agriculture. Author(s): Buechler, S. J.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 59) A fresh look at microbial guidelines for wastewater irrigation in agriculture: a risk-assessment and cost-effectiveness approach. Author(s): Fattal, B. Lampert, Y. Shuval, H.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 69) Wastewater irrigation - hazard or lifeline? Empirical results from Nairobi, Kenya and Kumasi, Ghana. Author(s): Cornish, G. A. Kielen, N. C.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 81) National assessments on wastewater use in agriculture and an emerging typology: the Vietnam case study. Author(s): Raschid-Sally, L. Doan Doan Tuan Sarath Abayawardana
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 91) Wastewater use in Pakistan: the cases of Haroonabad and Faisalabad. Author(s): Ensink, J. H. J. Simmons, R. W. Hoek, W. van der
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 101) Agricultural use of untreated urban wastewater in Ghana. Author(s): Keraita, B. N. Drechsel, P.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 113) Untreated wastewater use in market gardens: a case study of Dakar, Senegal. Author(s): Faruqui, N. I. Niang, S. Redwood, M.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 127) Wastewater irrigation in Vadodara, Gujarat, India: economic catalyst for marginalised communities. Author(s): Vaibhav Bhamoriya
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 135) The use of wastewater in Cochabamba, Bolivia: a degrading environment. Author(s): Huibers, F. P. Moscoso, O. DurĂ¡n, A. Lier, J. B. van
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 145) Treatment plant effects on wastewater irrigation benefits: revisiting a case study in the Guanajuato River basin, Mexico. Author(s): Silva-Ochoa, P. Scott, C. A.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 153) From wastewater reuse to water reclamation: progression of water reuse standards in Jordan. Author(s): McCornick, P. G. Amal Hijazi Sheikh, B.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 163) Treated wastewater use in Tunisia: lessons learned and the road ahead. Author(s): Shetty, S.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 173) Confronting the realities of wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: lessons learned and recommendations. Author(s): Faruqui, N. I. Scott, C. A. Raschid-Sally, L.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Water, Sanitation and Health Unit, World Health Organization (WHO), 20, Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2004
  • ISBN
  • 9780851998237
  • Record Number
  • 20043115033