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CABI Book Chapter

Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: confronting the livelihood and environmental realities.

Book cover for Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: confronting the livelihood and environmental realities.

Description

This book contains 16 chapters aiming to better understand urban waste water use in agriculture in developing countries (Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia), and detailed case study documentation of what works and what does not. It makes pragmatic recommendations aimed at protecting both the public health and farmers' income. This volume will be of significant interest to those workin...

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Chapter 1 (Page no: 1)

Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: management challenges in developing countries.

Cities in developing countries are experiencing unparalleled growth and rapidly increasing water supply and sanitation coverage that will continue to release growing volumes of wastewater. In many developing countries, untreated or partially treated wastewater is used to irrigate the cities' own food, fodder, and green spaces. Farmers have been using untreated wastewater for centuries, but greater numbers now depend on it for their livelihoods and this demand has ushered in a range of new wastewater use practices. The diversity of conditions is perhaps matched only by the complexity of managing the risks to human health and the environment that are posed by this practice. An integrated stepwise management approach is called for, one that is pragmatic in the short- and medium terms, and that recognises the fundamental economic niche and users' perceptions of the comparative advantages of wastewater irrigation that drive its expansion in urban and peri-urban areas. Comprehensive management approaches in the longer term will need to encompass treatment, regulation, farmer user groups, forward market linkages that ensure food and consumer safety, and effective public awareness campaigns. In order to propose realistic, effective, and sustainable management approaches, it is crucial to understand the context-specific tradeoffs between the health of producers and consumers of wastewater-irrigated produce as well as the quality of soils and water, on the one hand, and wastewater irrigation benefits, farmers' perceptions, and institutional arrangements on the other. This introductory chapter to the current volume on wastewater use in agriculture highlights a series of tradeoffs associated with continued use of untreated wastewater in agriculture. Empirical results from the case studies presented in the volume shed light on devising workable solutions.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 2 (Page no: 11) A framework for a global assessment of the extent of wastewater irrigation: the need for a common wastewater typology. Author(s): Hoek, W. van der
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) A sustainable livelihoods approach for action research on wastewater use in agriculture. Author(s): Buechler, S. J.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 41) Health guidelines for the use of wastewater in agriculture: developing realistic guidelines. Author(s): Carr, R. M. Blumenthal, U. J. Mara, D. D.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 59) A fresh look at microbial guidelines for wastewater irrigation in agriculture: a risk-assessment and cost-effectiveness approach. Author(s): Fattal, B. Lampert, Y. Shuval, H.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 69) Wastewater irrigation - hazard or lifeline? Empirical results from Nairobi, Kenya and Kumasi, Ghana. Author(s): Cornish, G. A. Kielen, N. C.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 81) National assessments on wastewater use in agriculture and an emerging typology: the Vietnam case study. Author(s): Raschid-Sally, L. Doan Doan Tuan Sarath Abayawardana
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 91) Wastewater use in Pakistan: the cases of Haroonabad and Faisalabad. Author(s): Ensink, J. H. J. Simmons, R. W. Hoek, W. van der
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 101) Agricultural use of untreated urban wastewater in Ghana. Author(s): Keraita, B. N. Drechsel, P.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 113) Untreated wastewater use in market gardens: a case study of Dakar, Senegal. Author(s): Faruqui, N. I. Niang, S. Redwood, M.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 127) Wastewater irrigation in Vadodara, Gujarat, India: economic catalyst for marginalised communities. Author(s): Vaibhav Bhamoriya
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 135) The use of wastewater in Cochabamba, Bolivia: a degrading environment. Author(s): Huibers, F. P. Moscoso, O. DurĂ¡n, A. Lier, J. B. van
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 145) Treatment plant effects on wastewater irrigation benefits: revisiting a case study in the Guanajuato River basin, Mexico. Author(s): Silva-Ochoa, P. Scott, C. A.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 153) From wastewater reuse to water reclamation: progression of water reuse standards in Jordan. Author(s): McCornick, P. G. Amal Hijazi Sheikh, B.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 163) Treated wastewater use in Tunisia: lessons learned and the road ahead. Author(s): Shetty, S.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 173) Confronting the realities of wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: lessons learned and recommendations. Author(s): Faruqui, N. I. Scott, C. A. Raschid-Sally, L.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • South Asia, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), South Asia Regional Office, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2004
  • ISBN
  • 9780851998237
  • Record Number
  • 20043115022