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In experiments using the Edinburgh family pen system of pig production, changing the structural layout of the pens had little effect on the behaviour of the pigs. Time budgets did not differ and aggression levels were low. Over a 3-year study, the farrowing rate was 2.32, with an average litter...

Wood-Gush, D. G. M.
Kuratorium für Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft, D-6100 Darmstadt 12, German Federal Republic
Proceedings of the International Congress on Applied Ethology in Farm Animals, Skara, 1988., 1988, pp 337-344

Based on the causation of behaviour, welfare may be defined by motivational balance and behavioural needs by environmental and behavioural key features that are essential for the performance of behavioural sequences. Ethological minimum requirements were determined from observations of adult and...

Stolba, A.; Wood-Gush, D. G. M.
Annales de Recherches Vétérinaires, 1984, 15, 2, pp 287-298