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Oxpeckers Buphagus spp. are unique passerines owing to their involvement in a cleaning association with domestic and wild African ungulates. Oxpeckers not only utilize their hosts for food but also use them as perches for resting, preening, displaying and copulating, as well as a source of nesting...

Plantan, T. B.; Howitt, M. J.; Kotzé, A.; Gaines, M. S.
Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK
International Zoo Yearbook, 2014, 48, 1, pp 92-100