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One of the obvious differences between birds and mammals is that there is no well-defined estrous cycle or pregnancy. Birds are oviparous and the embryo must have everything it needs when the egg is laid. As a result there are significant modifications in the reproductive physiology and the anatomy ...

Johnson, P. A.
Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, USA
Dukes' physiology of domestic animals, 2004, Ed.12, pp 742-753