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Aquaculture Compendium

Comprehensive, encyclopedic resource for information on aquaculture

Changes to Compendia distribution data: the distribution tables, maps and references in datasheets have been restructured to handle the data better for updating and align with a geographic standard. Further details are available on the About page.


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About the Aquaculture Compendium

The Aquaculture Compendium (AC) is an encyclopaedic, mixed media resource that brings together a wide range of different types of science-based information to support sound decision-making in aquaculture and aquatic resource management worldwide. It is comprised of information sourced from experts, and edited and compiled by an independent scientific organization. Existing information on aquaculture has been collated, evaluated, organized and presented as a single resource. 

*** STOP PRESS: the functionality of the Aquaculture Compendium (AC) website has been upgraded, including providing subscribers with zoomable distribution maps. New features associated with these maps include grabbing-and-panning and zoom functionalities, better presented maps showing physical features, and improved map labelling for countries and states/provinces. Further improvements include citation linking in the text and tables to references at the end of datasheets. These are key enhancements which we encourage our subscribers to explore. ***


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ISSN: 1750-9564

Please cite the Aquaculture Compendium as follows:

For the compilation as a whole

CABI, current year. Aquaculture Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet where no author is attributed

CABI, current year. Ctenopharyngodon idella. In: Aquaculture Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

For an individual datasheet where authors are attributed in the Contributor section

CABI, current year. Ctenopharyngodon idella [original text by AN Author]. In: Aquaculture Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.


The Compendium contains:


Cultured species datasheets: Detailed information on over 300 cultured aquatic species, including finfish, crustacea, molluscs, algae and live feeds. Each datasheet covers taxonomy, life cycle, reproduction, nutrition and feeding, environmental requirements, health, genetics, behaviour, native and cultured distribution.


Disease datasheets: Detailed information on over 100 aquatic diseases and disorders and summary information on 200 others. Each disease has a datasheet covering epidemiology, geographic and host range, economic impacts, pathology, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, zoonoses and food safety issues. Content includes the latest collated geographic distribution data from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).


Issues in aquaculture: Around 120 overview topics on ecosystems, growout production systems and issues in aquaculture. All these are linked to from relevant areas of content. For example, each cultured species datasheet contains links to associated topics; any shrimp species that is cultured in ponds (a growout system) in ricefield agroecosystems (an ecosystem), would contain up-front links to datasheets on those system-based issues.


Case studies: About 160 context-rich case studies help link theory and practice in aquaculture and aquatic resource management. Examples cover the major aquaculture issues in extension, research and industry. For the first edition of the Compendium there is a South and South-East Asian focus on case studies with many being produced in close consultation with researchers, especially in Bangladesh and Vietnam.


Library: An electronic library of specially commissioned and previously published information containing approximately 1,000 articles from internationally respected sources, all fully indexed for easy retrieval. The Compendium Library can be navigated using a contents list, by full-text searching or by direct linkage from a datasheet.


Other datasheets: Species and diseases that are not represented by full datasheets (written by experts) are represented by outline datasets obtained from CAB Abstracts, OIE and FishBase. These datasheets will be enhanced in future editions.


Search facilities: Data are held in a multi-dimensional relational database, which allows for linkages to be made easily between data components. CAB Thesaurus terms have been used to index library documents.


Taxonomic framework, giving taxonomic details for all species covered in the Compendium. All taxa are connected by a series of taxonomic hierarchies, shown in a graphical presentation within which the user may navigate, calling up datasheets at any point and listing species for further selection.


Bibliographic database: a subset of the latest research on aquaculture from CAB Abstracts, updated weekly, with full text of selected journal and conference articles. References cited in datasheets are linked to the citations. There is a powerful integrated retrieval tool, offering Boolean searching.


Glossary of terms, including definitions from Balliere's Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary.


Geographic distribution database containing country distribution data for the diseases and species covered. This provides the data for a GIS that presents the user with a dynamic mapping capability in which geographic data are automatically projected as distribution maps, global and regional, which can be compared with the distribution of another species, disease, etc.


Country database: Datasheets on over 150 countries, with maps and statistical data on aquaculture production and additional economic data from FAO, the World Bank and other sources. Contact details for contributing organisations based in that country are included for some countries. Data can be graphically displayed (see Statistics, above).


Pictures to illustrate cultured species, systems, topics, pathogens and diseases, usually in colour, linked internally to all other content relating to these topics. The Compendium contains over 2,000 images.

Please see Contributors for a full list of acknowledgements.

Library documents have been provided by a number of Contributors. See list for acknowledgements.

Full Datasheets: Datasheets on individual topics, species and diseases of aquaculture importance have been written specifically for the Compendium by a wide range of specialists from over 50 countries (see Contributors for a full list of acknowledgements).

Outline Datasheets may contain some information from a specialist, supplemented with information compiled by our experienced editorial team.

Basic Datasheets. Basic data are available for a much broader range of disorders, diseases and animal species. Approximately 9,000 species names and synonyms, and links with their hosts, geographic data and vectors, have been downloaded from the CAB Abstracts by a process of 'data mining' and automatic cross-checking. These data may provide useful indications of the identity, distribution and relationships of these entries, but it must be noted that not all the data in this form have been manually checked.

Last Modified date. The date of last modification of many datasheets can be found on the cover page. This date refers to the last time a modification was made to the text, to the distribution, or any other data for that entry. Most of the Basic datasheets do not have a 'last modified' date, these datasheets were derived from information mined from the CAB Abstracts database.


Distribution categories

Disclaimer: The presentation of material herein does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CABI concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its borders. The depiction and use of boundaries, geographic names and related data shown on maps and included in lists, tables and datasheets on this website are not warranted to be error free nor do they necessarily imply official endorsement or acceptance by CABI. The term “country” as used in the presentation of maps, lists, tables and texts also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

The Compendia datasheets draw species distributions from a database for the Distribution Table and map in species datasheets and for the species lists in country datasheets. A separate Distribution References list is linked to the sources cited in the Distribution Table and is presented below the main References list covering the other sections of the datasheet. Special focus is given to updating distributions and it may be the case that the Distribution Table and map are more up to date than the text in the datasheet.

CABI is using Geonames as the geographic framework to support the recording and plotting of distribution records on the map. This has resulted in some changes to the order and display of regions in the datasheets but provides better opportunities for mapping and data handling.

The distribution status for a country or region is based on all the information available - when several references are cited in the Distribution Table or map, they may give conflicting information on the species status. In particular, citations of earlier presence may be included even though there is an authoritative reference to indicate that the species is now absent. A summary of the current status for a location is shown in the Distribution Table and map but with all the contributing sources cited. It is this summary status that is used by the Horizon Scanning Tool and the PRA Tool. An alternative view of the distribution records is provided in the datasheet report where the section 'Distribution Table Details' can be selected to display each referenced source as a row in table format. In many cases extra information concerning individual sources can be found there. This section is not provided by default when the Report option 'All sections' is selected because the more compact 'Distribution Table' is used in preference. It can be manually selected for inclusion in the datasheet report.

Only records of presence are shown in the default display of the distribution map. Please refer to the Distribution Table in the datasheet for records of eradications, former presence, interceptions, and unreliable or invalid records reported in the literature. The absence of a record on the map does not necessarily mean the species is absent from that country or region -- it may be the case that information for those areas is not available. Most distribution records arise from a report of presence at some time in the past; it is not within the scope of Compendia to seek absence records routinely. The Distribution text in the datasheet may also provide additional information.

CABI requests users to send additional distribution information, with appropriate published references, to: Only records accompanied by a published reference can be considered for inclusion but personal communications may be recorded in the text until a published record becomes available. Data will be verified by CABI's editors, but this process will be greatly assisted if the relevant references are provided.

Categories of presence

Present: Occurring in a particular country or area (without details on range)
Present, Widespread: Occurring practically throughout the country or area where conditions are suitable. An alternative term is ‘Present: in all parts of the area’
Present, Localized: Present, but not widespread; used to indicate that the species does not occur in some suitable parts of the country or area. Other terms used for the same situation are: "Restricted distribution", "Limited distribution" and ‘Present: only in some areas’
Present, Few occurrences: Reported occasionally or reports suggest its presence is rare or sporadic. An alternative term is ‘Present: at low prevalence’

Categories of absence

Absent, Eradicated: Recorded at some time in the past but eradication was successful, so the species is not present now
Absent, Intercepted only: Only found in imported consignments, on entry or at the place of destination. It is not present now
Absent, Formerly present: Recorded at some time in the past, but either it did not establish or it disappeared without any special measures being taken. An alternative term is ‘Absent: no longer present’
Absent, Never occurred: The country concerned officially states that the species has never occurred there. This category is not used comprehensively, usually only if there has been an incorrect report in the literature

Additional attributes are included when available as follows (those with * below were added in 2020). These statuses may not have been added comprehensively to all distribution records for a species and are supplementary to the primary status of present or absent.


Native: Occurring within its natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans
Introduced: Introduced outside its natural past or present distribution by direct or indirect human agency. Alternative terms are ‘Alien’, ‘Non-native’, ‘Exotic’
Native and introduced*: In different parts of the area. Previously this would have been entered as ‘Native’ to the area
Reintroduced*: Reintroduced through human activity, either on purpose or accidentally. It is implied that the species was originally native to the area. Previously entered as 'Introduced'
Cryptogenic*: A species that is not demonstrably native or introduced


Naturalized*: An introduced species that has established outside captivity/cultivation
Invasive: A naturalized species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with economic or environmental harm. In a few cases native species have been reported as invasive, further details of these situations are provided in the datasheet text

First Reported and Last Reported: year or date


Only in captivity/cultivation
Only undercover/indoors: e.g. species only occurs in protected cultivation

Record quality (for absence records)

Confirmed absent by survey
No presence record(s)
Unconfirmed presence record(s): Species records indicate presence but they are considered unreliable because of ambiguous nomenclature, outdated identification methods etc. Previously recorded as ‘Absent, unconfirmed’ or ‘Absent, unreliable record’
Invalid presence record(s): Species records indicate presence but the records are no longer valid due to changes in taxonomy, misidentification, erroneous record, changes to national borders etc. Previously recorded as ‘Absent, invalid record’

Reference types used for species distributions

Compendia distributions are based on published records from the research literature, and authoritative species lists, databases and websites. A few are supported by collection records and correspondence. These have been reviewed by the datasheet author, reviewer or CABI editor and full details are provided in the Distribution References list, linked to a CAB Abstracts bibliographic record where possible. A CABI (Undated) citation has been used in three situations:

CABI Compendium: Summary status as determined by CABI editor. The status for the location has been summarized from all the available information, often with advice from the datasheet author or reviewer. No single reference has been selected to represent the current status that is displayed in the Distribution Table and used for generating the map

CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. A record of presence in a state or province has been used to support presence at the national level but a specific reference has not been selected for that country

Pre-2020 CABI Compendium record not linked to a full reference citation. Efforts have been made to link each record with a reference but it has not always been possible. An indication of the source may be included in the Notes and it may be possible to find the citation in the general References list for the datasheet

Data mining has been used to populate the distributions for basic datasheets where indicated. The primary source for this is CAB Abstracts

Distribution Maps - Important Note

For Full Datasheets, geographic distributions have been researched by individual contributors or were obtained from information provided by OIE, or FishBase (in some finfish species) and are based on the available records in the literature at the time of going to press. It is important to note that the absence of a record on the map does NOT necessarily mean the species/disease is absent from that country or region, but that information for those areas is not available. CABI intends to supplement and update distribution information with each update of the Compendium, and requests users to send additional information, with appropriate published references, to the Compendium Coordinator, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK, . Only records accompanied by a published reference can be considered for inclusion on the map; personal communications may be recorded in the text until a published record becomes available. Data will be verified by CABI's scientific advisors, but this process will be greatly assisted if you can provide the relevant references.

For some datasheets, summary geographic distributions have been obtained by data mining as described above; other sources may also be cited. These data provide useful indications of the distribution of these species, but it must be noted that data in this form have not been manually checked by experts, and that the distribution indicated may therefore be incomplete or imprecise.

Important Information on Organisation for World Animal Health (OIE) Database

Geographical records from the WAHID database are included in both full and outline datasheets. This is the latest available full-year data set. More up-to-date disease distribution data can be found at the OIE website (see below). Please consult individual references for further information. The most recent weekly disease reports in the serial publication, Disease Information, are available from OIE.

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Paris, France.

Bibliographic Data

Bibliographic database: a subset of the latest research on aquaculture from CAB Abstracts, updated weekly, with full text of selected journal and conference articles. References cited within datasheets are, where possible, attached to the relevant abstract from the CAB Abstracts database. Cited references and abstracts can be viewed directly from within a datasheet, or from within the Contents Search facility.


In some cases the orientation of the picture has been changed to give the best fit in the display space. If you can contribute additional pictures, please contact us.


Including over 30,000 definitions from Blood DC, Studdert VP., Gay CC, Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary (Copyright: Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved).


CAB International endeavours to ensure that drug dosages quoted are accurate. Users of the Compendium are, however, advised to always seek veterinary advice where appropriate and to check product information included in the packaging of each drug to ensure that additional important information is not neglected.

Changes in treatment, procedures, equipment and the use of drugs occur frequently as new information becomes available. Whilst CAB International takes care to ensure that information in the Compendium is as up-to-date as possible, users are strongly advised to confirm that the information, especially with regard to drug usage, complies with the latest legislation and standards of practice.

Whilst CAB International endeavours to ensure that information in the Compendium is up-to-date and comprehensive, users are strongly advised to check regulations in force in their own country.

ISSN: 1750-9564 (Web) 

Production Team

Project Manager:

Gareth Richards

Director, Content Development    

Shaun Hobbs


Peter Scott

Product Editor:

Gareth Richards

Editorial Team:

Claire Beverley  
Vicki Bonham    
Lucinda Charles 
Lesley McGillivray 
Uma Sabapathy Allen  

Compendia Picture Editor:

Michael Amphlett

Technical Project Manager:

Chris Parker

Software Development:

Tony Pittaway   
Alison Woods   
Guy Yeates

Web Development:

Jacques Aranes  
Salim Benadel   
Sinead Garvey  
Uma Narayanaswamy  
Roy Vethanayagam

Administrative Team:

Sarah Cranney  
Christine Davies   
Kerrie Lawrence


In addition to the Development Consortium, CABI gratefully acknowledges the following organizations for providing technical support and information:

AAHRI (Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute)

AARM Aqua Outreach Program (AOP), AIT

ACIAR (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research) 

Agriculture Publishing House, Hanoi
AIT (Asian Institute of Technology) 

AKVAsmart Pty. Ltd 

APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) 

Aquaculture Certification Council, Inc. 

ATSE Crawford Fund 

BAFRU ( Bangladesh : Fisheries Sector Support Programme)
Bangladesh , Government of 

BARRA ( Bangladesh Rural Reconstruction Association)
BRAC ( Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) 

CAB International (CABI) 

Can Tho University 

CARE Bangladesh 

CARE-CAGES Project (Cage Aquaculture for Greater Economic Security)
CEFAS (Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science) 

CEMARE (Centre for the Economics and Management of Aquatic Resources)

Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture 

CONPESCA (Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca)

DAFE Vietnam (Department of Agricultural Forestry Extension)
DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency ) 

DANIDA Technical Assistance, Bangladesh
Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada 

Department of Fisheries (DoF), Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock , Bangladesh
Department of Fisheries, Cambodia

Department of Fisheries, Thailand

Department for International Development (DFID) (London ) 




EMBO (The European Molecular Biology Organization) 

ENSIC (Environmental Systems Information Centre, AIT)

Fisheries Research Services, Aberdeen 

FRDC (Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Australian Government) 

FTEP-II (Fisheries and Training Extension Project - Phase II)
Fundación Chile 

Fundación Terram (Terram Foundation) 

GNAEP (Greater Noakhali Aquaculture Extension Project / Component)

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) 

IDRC (International Development Research Centre) 

INP (Instituto Nacional de la Pesca) 

Institute of Aquaculture , University of Stirling 

International Food Information Council (IFIC) 

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 

International Institute for Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) 

Intervet International bv 

IUCN (The World Conservation Union ) 

Kasetsart University 

Kentucky State University (KSU) Aquaculture 

Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) 

Mekong River Commission (MRC) 

Ministry of Fisheries (MOFi), Vietnam 

MRAG (Marine Resources Assessment Group)

MSU Pesticide Education ( Michigan State University ) 

NACA (Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific) 

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE) - MOH, Vietnam
Nong Lam University 

NORAD (Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation) 

North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDA & CS)

North Central Regional Aquaculture Center (NCRAC)

Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC)

Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (NIFA) (Fiskeriforskning) 

OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) 

PIU (Danida Project Implementation Unit , Bangladesh )
Pond Dynamics/ Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) 

Positive Aquaculture Awareness 

Project Seahorse 

READ (Rural Extension of Aquaculture Development in the Mekong Delta)
Rhodes University , Dept. of Icthyology and Fisheries Science

RIA 1 (Research Institute for Aquaculture 1) 

RIA 2 (Research Institute for Aquaculture 2)
Royal University of Agriculture (RUA) 

SAGARPA (Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderóa, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación)

SCALE Project (Southeast Asia Outreach Cambodia Aquaculture Low Expenditure Project)
Scottish Association for Marine Science 

Sea Grant Extension Service

SEAFDEC ( Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center) 

Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)

SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) 

Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC)

STREAM Initiative 

SUFA (Support to Freshwater Aquaculture) Vietnam
SUFER (Support for University Fisheries Education and Research), Bangladesh 

SUMA (Support to Brackish Water and Marine Aquaculture, Fisheries sector Programme Support, DANIDA)

Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute 

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) 

USDA-APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) 

World Aquaculture Society (WAS) 

WorldFish Center 

Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute


Contributors may cite their data sheets as follows:
CABI [year of access, e.g., 2017]. Cyprinus carpio [original text by AN Author]. In: Aquaculture Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.


CABI gratefully acknowledges a large number of individuals for providing technical support and information, for authoring and validating data sheets, and for providing illustrations. Further picture contributors are acknowledged in the caption accompanying each picture.


The Aquaculture Compendium is one of a series of CABI compendia covering animal and plant production, pests and diseases. For more information about the Aquaculture Compendium's sister compendia, click on the links below.