Damage based identification key for endophagous herbivores on Common Reed (Phragmites australis)

Author: Patrick Häfliger ©
CABI Europe - Switzerland, Rue des Grillons 1, CH-2800 Delémont
    "The Large Cigar Gall Fly"
Lipara lucens Meigen (Dipt.: Chloropidae)

Biology: Larvae hatch in May(June), enter shoots from the tip, and mine down through the growing point into the gall chamber formed by thickened, stunted internodes. Only one larva is found per shoot. End of July/August full fed larvae turn head upwards in the gall chamber and hibernate there. Pupation happens in April and adults emerge during May/June. Flies live for about two weeks and lay eggs on shoot tips and leaves.

Description: Mature larvae 8-12 mm long, body stout, light yellowish (picture 7), feeding in gall internodes below growing point; pupae same shape as larvae, brown to yellow-brown; adults dark, 5.5-7.5 mm (picture 36).

Feeding pattern/damage: Larvae induce shortening and thickening of new developing internodes. The resulting gall consists usually of 10-13 shortened and strongly lignified internodes (picture 22 and 5). After July the growing point is always eaten through.

Distribution: Europe, (North America introduced, probably not established)

References: Mook, 1967; Chvala et al., 1974

Pic. 7: Larva of Lipara lucens feeding in shortened internodes below growing point
Pic. 36: Adult Lipara lucens

Pic. 22/5: Gall of Lipara lucens without and with leaves

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